Dr. Günter Blobel received his M.D. from the University of Tübingen in 1960 and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1967. He was named the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Professor in 1992 and became an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1986.
Dr. Blobel was the 1999 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell. He also received the King Faisal Award in 1996, the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1993, the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize in 1989, and the Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1982.
Professor Qais Al-Awqati received his M.B., Ch.B. from the University of Baghdad in 1962. He was named the Robert F. Loeb Professor of Medicine in 1987 and became a Professor of Physiology and Medicine at Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons in 1983.
Professor Al-Awqati’s research activities include stem cells, epithelial cell biology, ion channels, and the overall development of the kidney.
Dr. David Anderson received his A.B. from Harvard College and his Ph.D. from The Rockefeller University. He is also Roger W. Sperry Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles.
Dr. Anderson is currently studying the development of the embryonic nervous system, with a focus on neural stem cells. He is also using molecular genetic techniques to map and probe neural circuits that underlie innate behaviors—such as avoidance of aversive stimuli—in both mice and fruit flies.
Dr. Joan Steitz received her B.S. from Antioch College and her Ph.D. from Harvard University. She is Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at the Yale School of Medicine.
Dr. Steitz is best known for discovering and defining the function of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which occur only in higher cells and organisms. She is also interested in the multiple roles played by small RNA–protein complexes in gene expression in vertebrate cells.
Dr. H. Robert Horovitz received his Ph.D. in 1974 from Harvard University and is David H. Koch Professor of Biology in the MIT Department of Biology; a Member, McGovern Institute for Brain Research; and Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
In 2002, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning the genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death. His research interests focus on how genes control animal development and behavior and the ways this can affect human health.