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November 21, 2016

Household Smoke Exposure Linked to Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

Researchers found modest, yet reliable long-term links between early childhood household smoke exposure and self-reported antisocial behavior in early adolescence.

November 21, 2016

Investing in the “Bioeconomy” Could Create Jobs and Reduce Carbon Emissions

A new article looks at the potential benefits of a Billion Ton Bioeconomy, a vision to enable a sustainable market for producing and converting a billion tons of US biomass to bio-based energy, fuels, and products by 2030.

November 21, 2016

Natural Regeneration May Help Protect Tropical Forests

A new article summarizes the findings of 16 studies that illustrate how natural regeneration of forests, a low-cost alternative to tree planting, can contribute significantly to forest landscape restoration in tropical regions. 

November 21, 2016

Researchers Ask Important Questions on What Happens to Oil after a Spill

Very little is known about what happens to oil in the ocean after an oil spill and what happens to it once a chemical dispersant has been applied. New research summarizes what is known and what important knowledge gaps remain.

November 21, 2016

Study Uncovers High Prevalence of Military Sexual Trauma among Transgender Veterans

New research found a high prevalence of military sexual trauma (MST) among transgender veterans and an association between the experience of MST and certain mental health conditions. 

November 21, 2016

Sunlight and Oil Spills May Make Deadly Combination for Wildlife

Contaminants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil spills can be toxic to wildlife, especially when in combination with ultraviolet radiation from the sun. New research on species native to the Gulf of Mexico indicates that, compared with oil exposure alone, co-exposure to oil and natural sunlight reduces survival rates of fish that spend time close to the surface in their larval stage.

November 21, 2016

Vitamin D Supplements May Benefit Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Vitamin D supplementation improved symptoms of autism in a recent trial.

12:00 AM EST November 14, 2016

Researchers Uncover Details Behind Dinosaur-Era Birds’ Feathers

Scientists have recently discovered a new bohaiornithid bird specimen from the Early Cretaceous Period of China with remarkably preserved feathers. Bohaiornithid birds belonged to enantiornithes, a group of avian dinosaurs that lived millions of years ago.

November 11, 2016

Study Examines Effectiveness of Probation Program

Within the criminal justice community, an approach to community supervision known as Honest Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) has generated widespread enthusiasm and praise as a way to reduce substance use, violations, new arrests, and revocations to prison, while also leading to significant cost savings for local justice systems. A new study casts doubts on the benefits of HOPE over probation as usual (PAU), however.

November 10, 2016

Sex-Related Differences in the Brain May Affect Pathways to Substance Abuse in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

A new study has found that adolescents suffering from bipolar disorder are more likely to develop substance use disorders if they have lower gray matter volume in the brain, a clue that can help in the design of better methods for early detection and more targeted prevention and treatment.

12:00 AM EST November 10, 2016

Study Links Optimal Asthma Control with Reduced Healthcare Costs

In a study of 736 asthma patients in Singapore, good asthma control resulted in a saving of S$65 (US$48) per physician visit. Compared with an average cost of S$214 (US$158) per visit, this reduction represents a cost saving of 30% versus suboptimally controlled asthma. 

November 07, 2016

An Issue whose Time Has Come: Sex/Gender Influences on Nervous System Function

Following decades of clinical research largely excluding females, scientists are finding that there are large differences in men and women that go well beyond their reproductive systems. Now, the Journal of Neuroscience Research is dedicating an issue entirely to sex differences at all levels of the brain, from the genetic and epigenetic level, to the synaptic, cellular, and systems levels.

November 07, 2016

Physical and Cognitive Fitness May Affect ALS Risk

New research suggests that physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), IQ, and stress resilience in young adulthood may have effects on the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease.

November 07, 2016

Poor Children with Epilepsy May Face Social Hurdles

In a population-based Canadian study of children with epilepsy, each of whom had access to universal health care, those from poor families had the same medical course and remission rate as their wealthier counterparts, but they had a less favorable social outcome as adults.

November 07, 2016

Reproductive History and Hormone Use May Affect Women’s Cognitive Function

In a study of healthy postmenopausal women, reproductive life events related to sex hormones, including earlier age at menarche, later age at last pregnancy, length of reproductive period, and use of oral contraceptives were positively related to aspects of cognition in later life. 

November 07, 2016

Salamander Research May Lead to New Strategies to Treat Infertility

Some animals, such as the axolotl salamander, have the ability to generate large numbers of eggs—or oocytes—throughout life. Investigators who recently conducted detailed analyses of the axolotl provide insights on the mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that could assist regenerative medicine in treating pre-mature ovarian failure and reduced fertility in humans.

November 07, 2016

When Do Speech Difficulties in Children Matter for Literacy?

A new study found that speech difficulties are linked with difficulties in learning to read when children first start school, but these effects are no longer apparent at 8 years of age.

November 04, 2016

Many Colorectal Cancers Would be Missed with New Criteria for Patient Referral

Recently, in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) outlined criteria that should trigger primary care clinicians to refer patients with suspected colorectal cancer to see an oncologist. A new analysis of 1981 patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms indicates that using these criteria, physicians would miss nearly 20% of colorectal cancers. 

November 03, 2016

Body Builders Aren’t Necessarily the Strongest Athletes

An increase in muscle size with exercise may not be directly related to an increase in muscle strength, according to a recent analysis of the literature.

November 01, 2016

Experts Explore How to Use and Share Routinely Collected Clinical Data on a Global Scale

Researchers are exploring ways to help clinicians and investigators use and share routinely collected medical data (such as information in electronic health records) to improve care and advance clinical research.