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Within the criminal justice community, an approach to community supervision known as Honest Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) has generated widespread enthusiasm and praise as a way to reduce substance use, violations, new arrests, and revocations to prison, while also leading to significant cost savings for local justice systems. A new study casts doubts on the benefits of HOPE over probation as usual (PAU), however.
Safe Fog: Phosphorus nitride could be used as a friction-stable, fast-burning, and very effective pyrotechnic obscurant
Safety combined with power and effectiveness is one of the most important targets in the development of pyrotechnic obscurants. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, German and Polish scientists introduced phosphorus nitride as a safe but very powerful alternative to the well-known red phosphorus formulations, which have been used in military and civilian applications for decades.
Sex-Related Differences in the Brain May Affect Pathways to Substance Abuse in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder
A new study has found that adolescents suffering from bipolar disorder are more likely to develop substance use disorders if they have lower gray matter volume in the brain, a clue that can help in the design of better methods for early detection and more targeted prevention and treatment.
In a study of 736 asthma patients in Singapore, good asthma control resulted in a saving of S$65 (US$48) per physician visit. Compared with an average cost of S$214 (US$158) per visit, this reduction represents a cost saving of 30% versus suboptimally controlled asthma.
Following decades of clinical research largely excluding females, scientists are finding that there are large differences in men and women that go well beyond their reproductive systems. Now, the Journal of Neuroscience Research is dedicating an issue entirely to sex differences at all levels of the brain, from the genetic and epigenetic level, to the synaptic, cellular, and systems levels.
A new analysis indicates that many men with prostate cancer obtain second opinions from urologists before starting treatment, but surprisingly, second opinions are not associated with changes in treatment choice or improvements in perceived quality of prostate cancer care. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings also explore motivations for seeking second opinions, and suggest that second opinions may not reduce overtreatment in prostate cancer.
New research suggests that physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), IQ, and stress resilience in young adulthood may have effects on the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease.
In a population-based Canadian study of children with epilepsy, each of whom had access to universal health care, those from poor families had the same medical course and remission rate as their wealthier counterparts, but they had a less favorable social outcome as adults.
In a study of healthy postmenopausal women, reproductive life events related to sex hormones, including earlier age at menarche, later age at last pregnancy, length of reproductive period, and use of oral contraceptives were positively related to aspects of cognition in later life.
Some animals, such as the axolotl salamander, have the ability to generate large numbers of eggs—or oocytes—throughout life. Investigators who recently conducted detailed analyses of the axolotl provide insights on the mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that could assist regenerative medicine in treating pre-mature ovarian failure and reduced fertility in humans.
Salty Batteries: Sodium-oxygen batteries have improved cycle life due to highly concentrated electrolytes
Smartphones, laptops, electric cars—whatever the device, an efficient battery is high on any user’s wish list. The search for the next-generation battery has recently focused on sodium– oxygen batteries. Theoretically, these should provide previously unattainable efficiency but their practical implementation has proven to be a stumbling block. Researchers now report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, that a highly concentrated electrolyte solution may make the sodium–oxygen battery more stable, and therefore more practicable.
A new study found that speech difficulties are linked with difficulties in learning to read when children first start school, but these effects are no longer apparent at 8 years of age.
Simply Said teaches you the critical skills that make you more effective in business and in life.
Recently, in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) outlined criteria that should trigger primary care clinicians to refer patients with suspected colorectal cancer to see an oncologist. A new analysis of 1981 patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms indicates that using these criteria, physicians would miss nearly 20% of colorectal cancers.
An increase in muscle size with exercise may not be directly related to an increase in muscle strength, according to a recent analysis of the literature.
HOBOKEN, N.J.- John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (NYSE: JWa, JWb) is delighted to announce the launch of the Forrester Wiley Customer Engagement Awards. The awards recognize Wiley colleagues who execute on industry best practices and modern marketing techniques. Forrester partnered with Wiley in developing the awards bringing their expertise as industry-leaders in customer strategies that drive growth.
Lithium Ion Extraction: A combined polymer/metal–organic composite membrane allows for the effective separation of lithium from contaminants in brines
The increasing usage of lithium for batteries or high-performance metals requires improved extraction techniques of lithium from primary sources such as salt lake brines. Chinese scientists have now designed a solid composite membrane that combines the mimicking of the chemical selection process in biological ion channels with molecular sieve technology. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, they report the effective and fast separation of lithium ions from brines with that membrane.
Women are an unparalleled force in the global economy—as successful entrepreneurs, corporate executives and family breadwinners. Yet gender-based violence, the absence of women's legal rights and the persistent wage gap stubbornly remain. This paradox creates an unprecedented and underexplored opportunity for investors.
Researchers are exploring ways to help clinicians and investigators use and share routinely collected medical data (such as information in electronic health records) to improve care and advance clinical research.
In Clash of the Generations, Grubb details proven strategies that managers and senior leaders can use immediately to incorporate the contributions of youth and the wisdom of age to give organizations a competitive edge in reaching more customers.