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Where Does Cisplatin Bind?: Identification of genome-wide cisplatin cross-linking sites with DNA base resolution
Cisplatin is one of the most widely used agents in cancer chemotherapy. Its mode of action is cross-linking of the DNA, which can kill cells. But which part of the genome is more affected, and which is less affected? A Chinese team of scientists have now set up a universal, genome-wide assay system to detect the specific cisplatin action sites, In the journal Angewandte Chemie the scientists introduce their system and report initial results, which support the notion that the mitochondrial genome is one of cisplatin's main targets.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (NYSE: JWa, JWb) would like to acknowledge the laureates honored with the 2016 Nobel Prize. Six of these laureates have had their work published in Wiley’s medical, physiology, chemistry and economics journals and books.
Self-Healable Battery: Lithium ion battery for electronic textiles grows back together after breaking
Electronics that can be embedded in clothing are a growing trend. However, power sources remain a problem. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists have now introduced thin, flexible, lithium ion batteries with self-healing properties that can be safely worn on the body. Even after completely breaking apart, the battery can grow back together without significant impact on its electrochemical properties.
Hidden Chirality: Nitrogen-15 isotope can trigger asymmetric autocatalytic reactions toward chiral organic compounds
The preparation of chiral compounds as intermediates in drug synthesis is one of the most important targets in synthetic organic chemistry. Japanese scientists have now shown that the autocatalytic preparation of a chiral intermediate can be triggered by a compound bearing hidden chirality, which consisted of nothing more than the difference between the isotopes nitrogen-15 and nitrogen-14. The study is published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
Catalyst from the Microwave: Microwave-assisted thermolysis: New route to highly crystalline carbon nitrides for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation
Lunch out of the microwave usually doesn’t taste nearly as good as a meal made in a conventional oven. This difference in quality is reversed for graphitic carbon nitride, a catalyst used for generating hydrogen from sunlight. Treatment of a precursor material with microwaves delivers a significantly more crystalline product than conventional thermolysis in an oven. As scientists report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, a catalyst produced in this way is significantly more effective in the generation of hydrogen.
Body Heat as a Power Source: Wearable integrated thermocells based on gel electrolytes use body heat
Electronics integrated into textiles are gaining in popularity: Systems like smartphone displays in a sleeve or sensors to detect physical performance in athletic wear have already been produced. The main problem with these systems tends to be the lack of a comfortable, equally wearable source of power. Chinese scientists are now aiming to obtain the necessary energy from body heat. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, they have introduced a flexible, wearable thermocell based on two different gel electrolytes.
The recovery of gold and other noble metals from electronic waste, in particular discarded mobile phones, has enormous potential, but is still underdeveloped. British and American scientists have now identified a simple and nontoxic compound that is able to extract gold selectively from a mixture of metals that are usually present in such electronic waste. How this selective binding could be used in a convenient protocol for efficient gold recovery is described in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
How Did the Phosphate Get into RNA? Urea as one of the essential components in Darwin's "warm little pond"
The phosphate ion is almost insoluble and is one of the most inactive of Earth's most abundant phosphate minerals. So how could phosphate have originally been incorporated into ribonucleotides, the building blocks of RNA, which are considered to be among the earliest constituents of life? American and Spanish scientists have now identified reasonable conditions to mobilize phosphate from insoluble apatite minerals for prebiotic organophosphate synthesis, including ribonucleotides. The pivotal role of urea in this process is also described in their article in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
Cold-Fired Ceramics: Paradigm shift in ceramics production: cold sintering instead of high-temperature firing
Both hobbyists' pottery and engineered high-performance ceramics are only useable after they are fired for hours at high temperatures, usually above 1000 °C. The sintering process that takes place causes the individual particles to “bake” together, making the material more compact and giving it the required properties, like mechanical strength. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, American researchers have now demonstrated that sintering can also take place at significantly lower temperatures. This cold sintering process is based on the addition of small amounts of water to aid the key transport processes that densify the material.
Whether building bone, shells, or corals, living creatures are true masters of crystallization. In the laboratory, this amazing precision cannot be duplicated yet. The processes and many of the precise structures of bio minerals remain largely unexplored. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, an international team has now introduced a three-dimensional X-ray diffraction technique for determining crystallographic texture—the preferred orientation of the little crystals in a solid—with previously unattainable spatial resolution.
Rusty Steel Triggers Oxygen Evolution: Corroded stainless steel plate makes up an efficient water splitting electrode
Electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most promising next generation technologies for environmentally friendly and inexpensive energy conversion and storage. However, one of its biggest obstacles is the sluggishness of the oxidation reaction, which is key to the whole process. State-of-the-art technology relies on metal oxide electrocatalysts, but both cost and performance still need to be improved. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Chinese scientists have now introduced oxidized, that is, rusty, stainless-steel plates as excellent electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution. That technology could represent a surprisingly simple approach toward solving a long-standing problem.
Trinitrotoluene or TNT has been considered as the standard measure for explosives for 100 years, although new high-energy-density materials or HEDMs outperform this substance in terms of explosion power, safety, but also environmental compatibility. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Russian scientists present the synthesis of a highly interesting HEDM, which exhibits excellent energetic properties as well as a beautiful, butterfly-like structure.
DNA polymerases are the “Xerox machines” that replicate our DNA. They must work with great precision to keep errors from creeping into our genes. In spite of this precision, they still accept building blocks that have been coupled to large proteins, as a group of German scientists reports in the journal Angewandte Chemie. Based on this fact, the team has developed detection systems for genotyping DNA and RNA that can be evaluated by the naked eye. This method may allow for new diagnostic tools for use in the field.
Counting Red Blood Cells: Electrochemical determination of the concentration and peroxidase activity of erythrocytes
Blood counts are routinely carried out before operations, in cases of infection, or when testing for a variety of diseases, such as anemia and leukemia. A key value in this test is the number of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Scientists at the University of Oxford (UK) have now introduced a simple nano-electrochemical process for the rapid, precise determination of the erythrocyte count. As described in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the test also determines the activity of individual erythrocytes toward hydrogen peroxide.
Facile Dosimetry for Chemical Hazards: Disposable, low-cost chemidosimetric indicator with smartphone connection
The detection of exposure to chemical hazards can save lives. American scientists have developed a smart and simple chemidosimeter based on a chemiresistive sensor combined with a near-field communication tag, which can be read-out by a smartphone. This chemically actuated resonant device (CARD) is made of simple components, is disposable, ready-to-use, needs no batteries, and can be worn as a badge by people who are likely exposed to chemical hazards. It is described in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
A simple but effective sensor for monitoring the respiration rate of individuals has been created. Taking advantage of the hygroscopic character of ordinary paper, scientists at Harvard University have developed an electrical sensor to detect the periodic changes of humidity by breathing in and out. As they report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the respiration data can be transmitted to and collected by nearby smartphones or tablet computers for further processing, storage, or transmittance to practical therapists. A simple face mask carrying the sensor system and worn in hospital wards may thus save lives.
We are all familiar with that strange feeling in the mouth after a sip of red wine or tea, or a bite of unripe fruit. It has been described as dry, leathery, or even furry. This astringent effect is caused by tannins or polyphenolic compounds that bind to mucins, lubricating proteins in the mucus membranes of the mouth. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, a Chinese and Korean research team has now shown the relationship between astringency and disrupted lubrication of the oral cavity.
Solar energy is on the rise. Many technical advances have made solar cells quite efficient and affordable in recent years. A big disadvantage remains in the fact that solar cells produce no power when it’s raining. This may change, however: In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Chinese researchers have now introduced a new approach for making an all-weather solar cell that is triggered by both sunlight and raindrops.
Researchers have developed a new way to prioritize investigations on the environmental impacts of the estimated 1500 active pharmaceutical ingredients currently in use.
Researchers Provide Detailed Genetic Information on Fish Commonly Used in Environmental Toxicology Studies
The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has long been a premier animal model for research and regulation related to environmental toxins. Unfortunately, however, genetic information about this species is incomplete. The lack of genome sequence information for the species has limited scientists’ ability to dissect complex traits, evaluate genetic markers, identify gene regulatory sequences, and elucidate biological pathways.