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November 28, 2016

Light Switch in Autumn Leaves: Yellow chlorophyll decomposition products are environment-responsive photoswitches

Before trees lose their leaves in the winter, they offer us a bright autumnal display of reds, oranges, and yellows. This results from the decomposition of the compound that makes leaves green: chlorophyll. Among the decomposition products are yellow phyllobilins that demonstrate unusual chemical properties. As reported by Austrian scientists in the journal Angewandte Chemie, these compounds act as four-step molecular “switches” that are triggered by light in different ways depending on the environment.

November 21, 2016

Efforts Are Needed to Protect Native Species from Feral Cats

Feral cats are among the most damaging invasive species worldwide, particularly in Australia where they have caused the extinction of more than 20 mammal species. New work has developed priorities for feral cat research and management, including preventing further extinctions, testing new management tools, and increasing potential for native fauna to coexist with cats.

November 21, 2016

Natural Regeneration May Help Protect Tropical Forests

A new article summarizes the findings of 16 studies that illustrate how natural regeneration of forests, a low-cost alternative to tree planting, can contribute significantly to forest landscape restoration in tropical regions. 

November 21, 2016

Sunlight and Oil Spills May Make Deadly Combination for Wildlife

Contaminants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil spills can be toxic to wildlife, especially when in combination with ultraviolet radiation from the sun. New research on species native to the Gulf of Mexico indicates that, compared with oil exposure alone, co-exposure to oil and natural sunlight reduces survival rates of fish that spend time close to the surface in their larval stage.

October 25, 2016

Scientists Root for More Cassava Research to Help Meet Greater Demand for Food

Global food demand is expected to grow by 110 per cent over the next 30 to 35 years, and for many of the poorest people on the planet, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, cassava is the most important source of calories. Cassava is also important as a crop that is resistant to climate change, but it has not received the same amount of attention as other staple food crops. 

October 20, 2016

Wiley Celebrates the 2016 Nobel Prize Laureates

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (NYSE: JWa, JWb) would like to acknowledge the laureates honored with the 2016 Nobel Prize. Six of these laureates have had their work published in Wiley’s medical, physiology, chemistry and economics journals and books.

October 13, 2016

Bait Worms Are a Valuable Marine Resource

The humble bait worm wriggling on the hook at the end of angler’s line may be considered a low value resource, but in the first global assessment of its value and impact, researchers have revealed it to be a multi-billion pound global industry worth nearly £6 billion per year. 

October 03, 2016

Community-Level Resources May Affect Residents’ Mental Health following a Natural Disaster

In a study on the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, residents of communities with high unemployment were at elevated risk of disaster-related post-traumatic stress, but only when individuals were assessed 25–28 months post-disaster and not when they were assessed 13–16 months post-disaster.

 

September 20, 2016

Plant Diversity Alleviates the Effects of Flooding on Crops

In grasslands, growing plants in higher diversity fields may help alleviate the negative impacts of flooding. This finding may extend to how we grow important food crops. 

September 19, 2016

Experience with Vehicles Does Not Help Birds Avoid Collisions

Researchers suspected that experience with passing vehicles may cause birds to adjust their avoidance responses—specifically, to increase their flight initiation distances—to keep from being hit. Instead, though, they recently found that inexperienced birds have longer flight initiation distances in response to oncoming vehicles than birds that have repeatedly observed passing, fast-moving vehicles.

September 19, 2016

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Accident

A new article provides an overview of the impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 and subsequent remediation measures, comparing similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine.

September 19, 2016

Research Provides New Insights on the Impact of Wild Birds’ Social Networks

New research looks into how social networks among wild great tits, as they forage in flocks during the winter, carry over into shaping the set locations at which the birds breed and raise their young during the spring.

 

September 06, 2016

Corporate social responsibility can backfire if employees don’t think it’s genuine

A new study looks at what happens when a company’s employees view its efforts related to corporate social responsibility as substantive (perceived to be other-serving and genuinely aimed at supporting the common good) or symbolic (perceived as self-serving and performed primarily for reputation and to enhance profits). 

September 06, 2016

Dam removal projects accelerate, but research lags behind

A new review reveals gaps in the science of dam removal. Although more than 1200 dams have been removed in the United States, fewer than 10 percent have been scientifically evaluated. Those studies that do exist focus more on short-term river channel responses rather than longer-term biological responses.

September 06, 2016

Has the affordable care act accomplished its goals?

A new review of the published literature indicates that the Affordable Care Act has made significant progress in accomplishing two of its main goals—decreasing the number of uninsured and improving access to care.

September 06, 2016

Screening for suicidal thoughts and behaviors declines with patient age

In a recent analysis of patient charts from eight different emergency departments, documented screening for self-harm, suicide ideation, or suicide attempts declined with age, from approximately 81 percent in younger age groups to a low of 68 percent among those aged ≥85 years.

 

August 31, 2016

Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel May Contain Hidden Symbols of Female Anatomy

Publications on the works of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel indicate that numerous codes and hidden messages may have been inserted for various purposes. Now a new analysis suggests that Michelangelo may have concealed symbols associated with female anatomy when painting the chapel’s ceiling. 

August 29, 2016

New Research Sheds Light on How Aged Wine Gets its Aroma

Researchers have discovered an enzyme that plays a leading role in the formation of compounds that give aged wines their sought-after aroma.

August 18, 2016

How Did the Phosphate Get into RNA? Urea as one of the essential components in Darwin's "warm little pond"

The phosphate ion is almost insoluble and is one of the most inactive of Earth's most abundant phosphate minerals. So how could phosphate have originally been incorporated into ribonucleotides, the building blocks of RNA, which are considered to be among the earliest constituents of life? American and Spanish scientists have now identified reasonable conditions to mobilize phosphate from insoluble apatite minerals for prebiotic organophosphate synthesis, including ribonucleotides. The pivotal role of urea in this process is also described in their article in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

August 11, 2016

American Geophysical Union Partners with Wiley to Take On New Geohealth Initiative

Largest Earth and Space Science Organization and Publishing Partner Wiley to Launch New Open Access Journal

WASHINGTON, DC—9 August 2016—Geohealth is a rapidly emerging transdisciplinary field that supports the intersection of Earth and environmental sciences with human, agricultural, and environmental health. As a first step in its efforts to support and enable this emerging field, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) announced today the launch of its newest journal, GeoHealth.

 

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