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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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Despite improvements in medical care, about two-thirds of patients with Crohn’s disease develop complications requiring intestinal surgery at some time, and post-operative healing can be complicated. Clinicians now report that pre-operative optimisation of patients with Crohn’s disease with exclusive enteral nutrition (liquid nutrition formula) is associated with reduced rates of post-operative abscess or intestinal leakage by nine-fold.
New analyses of the published clinical studies indicate that antimicrobial sutures are effective for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs), and they can result in significant cost savings. The results are published in the British Journal of Surgery.
New research indicates that community-acquired pneumonia should not be regarded as a seasonal disease, as it occurs throughout all seasons; however, the pathogens that cause the condition are clearly subject to seasonal variations.
Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements that are often used by patients with high cholesterol, and it is often proposed as an alternative therapy in those who experience side effects from statins. A new study found that it is not a good choice for statin-intolerant patients: RYR was linked with muscle and liver injury, which can also occur with statin use.
Experts Seek to Educate Orthopaedic Researchers on the Ethical Use of Animals in Preclinical Studies
Recent initiatives by the Orthopaedic Research Society seek to improve animal research and ensure that it is performed to the highest ethical and scientific standards.
A new analysis of numerous studies indicates that men and women aged 60 years and older who have experienced a hip fracture are at increased risk of dying not only in the short term after the fracture, but also a number of years later.
A new review discusses important consideration when caring for children who have received liver transplants.
Researchers have found that certain plant-derived products may help prevent and treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Proanthocyanidin (PAC) and its analogs, oolonghomobisflavanes, act by inhibiting viral entry into host cells.
A weekly dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor was just as effective at controlling type 2 diabetic patients’ blood sugar as a daily DPP-4 inhibitor in a recent randomized clinical trial.
A study shows that a certain intervention called testimony therapy plus ceremony reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression among Khmer Rouge torture survivors from across Cambodia.
For the first time, we now have a randomized trial comparing active monitoring, surgery, and radiation therapy for the management of localized prostate cancer. In a recent BJU International article, experts note that the investigators are to be congratulated on their highly anticipated landmark study, the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial; however, they point to several limitations in the recruitment of patients for the study and differences in the active monitoring protocol in the study compared with contemporary practice.
To protect people against potentially deadly infectious disease outbreaks, it is critical that scientists and governments rapidly share information about the pathogens that cause them. The first study of the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) shows how it is possible to encourage the greater international sharing of such data, despite numerous challenges that exist.
A new systematic review, published in the Cochrane Library today, suggests that yoga may lead to a reduction in pain and functional ability in people with chronic non-specific lower back pain over the short term, compared with no exercise. However, researchers advise that more studies are needed to provide information on long-term effects.
Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be a significant barrier to receiving cancer preventive services, especially for individuals of lower socioeconomic status. A new study looks at how the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which eliminated such out-of-pocket expenditures, has affected the use of mammography and colonoscopy. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study found that use of mammography, but not colonoscopy, increased after the ACA.
Spain is leading the world in deceased organ donation. A new article published in the American Journal of Transplantation contains important information that can help other countries learn from the success of the Spanish system to help address the worldwide problem of transplant organ shortages.
Previous case reports in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have suggested that treatment with bisphosphonates, which are commonly prescribed for osteoporosis, may be associated with atypical femur fractures. A new retrospective study of 119 children with OI indicates that such fractures are related to the severity of OI rather than to bisphosphonate use, however.
In a population-based study from Scotland, use of commonly-prescribed acid suppression medications such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) was linked with an increased risk of intestinal infections with C. difficile and Campylobacter bacteria, which can cause considerable illness.
A new comprehensive review examines the potential health benefits of resistant starch, a form of starch that is not digested in the small intestine and is therefore considered a type of dietary fibre. Some forms of resistant starch occur naturally in foods such as bananas, potatoes, grains, and legumes, and some are produced or modified commercially and incorporated into food products.
In research conducted in rats, investigators have shown for the first time the effect of rotator cuff tendon overuse, or tendinopathy, on surrounding tissues.
The use of biologics, which are generally made from human and/or animal materials, has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade, becoming the cornerstone treatment for many patients. Because the arsenal of biologics for rheumatoid arthritis includes numerous monoclonal antibodies with various mechanisms of action, it can be challenging to optimize treatments for individuals.