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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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Certain medications are considered high risk in elders. In a recent study of 287 individuals ≥65 years who experienced a fall while hospitalized at an urban academic hospital, 62 percent of falls occurred in patients in whom high risk medications had been administered within the 24 hours before the fall.
In the largest study yet to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS) to treat incontinence in men following invasive prostate treatment, the overall success and dry rates were 90% and 64%, respectively, after a median of 31 months.
Having a child with cancer led to income reductions for parents and job discontinuation among mothers in a recent study, even after adjusting for pre-diagnosis sociodemographic factors. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings indicate that childhood cancer affects parents’ income and employment for years after the child’s diagnosis, and that these effects are not equally distributed among mothers and fathers.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a potentially serious liver condition characterized by excess fat in the liver associated with inflammation and scarring. NASH may progress to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer, and it can also compromise kidney function.
Exercise Programs May Not Provide Additional Benefits to Usual Physical Therapy Following Total Knee Replacement
In a randomized trial of patients who underwent total knee replacement as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a group program of strengthening and aerobic exercises was not better at alleviating long-term knee pain or overcoming activity limitations compared with usual care, which included physical therapy.
Researchers have found that fat-free mass index, but not body mass index, was a significant predictor of survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a debilitating form of pneumonia. Unlike body mass index, fat-free mass index takes into account the amount of muscle mass a person is carrying.
In a review of published studies addressing patients’ perceptions and factors influencing their reporting of adverse drug reactions, most patients were not aware of reporting systems and others were confused about reporting.
Vitamin D supplementation improved symptoms of autism in a recent trial.
A new analysis points to surprisingly low rates of serious impacts from medication errors affecting nursing home residents, despite the fact that these errors remain fairly common.
Sex-Related Differences in the Brain May Affect Pathways to Substance Abuse in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder
A new study has found that adolescents suffering from bipolar disorder are more likely to develop substance use disorders if they have lower gray matter volume in the brain, a clue that can help in the design of better methods for early detection and more targeted prevention and treatment.
In a study of 736 asthma patients in Singapore, good asthma control resulted in a saving of S$65 (US$48) per physician visit. Compared with an average cost of S$214 (US$158) per visit, this reduction represents a cost saving of 30% versus suboptimally controlled asthma.
Following decades of clinical research largely excluding females, scientists are finding that there are large differences in men and women that go well beyond their reproductive systems. Now, the Journal of Neuroscience Research is dedicating an issue entirely to sex differences at all levels of the brain, from the genetic and epigenetic level, to the synaptic, cellular, and systems levels.
A new analysis indicates that many men with prostate cancer obtain second opinions from urologists before starting treatment, but surprisingly, second opinions are not associated with changes in treatment choice or improvements in perceived quality of prostate cancer care. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings also explore motivations for seeking second opinions, and suggest that second opinions may not reduce overtreatment in prostate cancer.
New research suggests that physical fitness, body mass index (BMI), IQ, and stress resilience in young adulthood may have effects on the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease.
In a population-based Canadian study of children with epilepsy, each of whom had access to universal health care, those from poor families had the same medical course and remission rate as their wealthier counterparts, but they had a less favorable social outcome as adults.
In a study of healthy postmenopausal women, reproductive life events related to sex hormones, including earlier age at menarche, later age at last pregnancy, length of reproductive period, and use of oral contraceptives were positively related to aspects of cognition in later life.
Some animals, such as the axolotl salamander, have the ability to generate large numbers of eggs—or oocytes—throughout life. Investigators who recently conducted detailed analyses of the axolotl provide insights on the mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that could assist regenerative medicine in treating pre-mature ovarian failure and reduced fertility in humans.
Recently, in the UK, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) outlined criteria that should trigger primary care clinicians to refer patients with suspected colorectal cancer to see an oncologist. A new analysis of 1981 patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms indicates that using these criteria, physicians would miss nearly 20% of colorectal cancers.
An increase in muscle size with exercise may not be directly related to an increase in muscle strength, according to a recent analysis of the literature.
Researchers are exploring ways to help clinicians and investigators use and share routinely collected medical data (such as information in electronic health records) to improve care and advance clinical research.