Medicine & Healthcare
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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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Recovery from abdominal surgery is often slowed by a temporary paralysis of the intestines known as ileus, but in a recent phase II clinical trial, prucalopride—a drug that stimulates motility—cut the risk of ileus lasting for more than 5 days in half.
Problems with long-term urinary catheters create a considerable demand on emergency departments and are very costly to healthcare systems, according to a new study from South East London.
New research suggests that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach, which occurs in about half of the world’s population and can cause peptic ulcers and stomach cancer in minority of cases, may help protect against an allergic disorder of the esophagus condition called eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).
A new survey of historical evidence demonstrates that Henry Gray plagiarized parts of the first edition of his book, Gray’s Anatomy, the famed textbook of human anatomy that was initially published in 1858 and is currently in its 41st edition.
A new practical manual addresses the controversial topic of organ donation after euthanasia, providing guidance to clinicians whose patients have requested euthanasia and the desire to offer their organs to others in need. The manual is published in the American Journal of Transplantation.
A new analysis indicates that higher body weight and taller stature during adolescence increase the risk of developing Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. The findings are published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society
In the largest study of contraceptive practices of women with epilepsy, 30% did not use highly effective contraception despite being at higher risk of having children with fetal malformations due to the anti-epilepsy medications they take.
New research in mice provides convincing evidence that digoxin, a drug prescribed to treat atrial fibrillation, can help protect against atherosclerosis.
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that’s capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air flow.
New research uncovers a cascade of reactions within nerve cells that relay sensations of pain associated with inflammation. The findings, which are published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, indicate that drugs designed to curb this pathway may help relieve inflammatory pain in sufferers.
New evidence published today highlights benefits and harms of using artificial mesh when compared with tissue repair in the surgical treatment of vaginal prolapse. Slightly better repair with mesh needs to be weighed carefully against increased risk of harms.
A new analysis indicates that states’ Web-based and phone-based tobacco cessation programs can help people quit smoking, but certain personal characteristics may lead individuals to prefer one type of program over the other. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings may help states optimize their tobacco cessation and cancer control programs.
Symptoms of knee instability in older adults may indicate an increased risk of falling and of experiencing the various physical and psychological effects that can result from falling, according to a study published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). The findings indicate that determining effective treatments for knee instability should be an important priority as clinicians care for aging patients.
A new study indicates that mothers who frequently sleep, or bed-share, with their infants consistently breastfeed for longer than mothers who do not bed-share. Also, pregnant women who expressed a strong motivation to breastfeed were more likely to bed-share frequently once their baby was born.
New research indicates that analyses of vapors from fecal samples can identify volatile metabolites indicative of different types of inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
A recent study shows that encouraging nurses to work towards a collective goal within a supportive milieu—a style of management called transformational leadership—can have positive effects on the quality of the care given to patients. It was also a predictor of nurses’ intentions to stay on at their current healthcare facilities. Conversely, abusive leadership practices potentially lead to poorer quality of care and to a strong intention to quit.
The most robust evidence yet, published today in the Cochrane Library, suggests that national smoking legislation does reduce the harms of passive smoking, and particularly risks from heart disease.
In a mouse model of allergic asthma, dasatinib—an enzyme inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia—reduced inflammation, enhanced airway repair, and improved lung mechanics.
Regular consumption of coffee was linked with a reduced risk of liver cirrhosis in a review of relevant studies published before July 2015.
Children with cancer and their families often experience considerable psychological and social challenges during and after treatment. A special issue of Pediatric Blood & Cancer now offers evidence-based standards for pediatric psychosocial care.