Medicine & Healthcare
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The Wiley Foundation, part of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. today announced the 14th annual Wiley Prize in Biomedical Sciences will be awarded to Evelyn M. Witkin and Stephen Elledge for their studies of the DNA damage response.
New research suggests that drugs commonly used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation may also be helpful for combating HIV.
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In fertility clinics and agencies in Delhi, India, none of the 14 surrogate mothers in a recent study were able to explain the risks involved in embryo transfer and fetal reduction. Also, the majority of doctors took unilateral decisions about embryo transfer and fetal reduction, and commissioning parents were usually only indirectly involved.
U.S. Sees Declining Use of Available Donor Hearts for Transplantation, Despite a Growing Waiting List
Increasing numbers of people in the United States are developing heart failure, which leads to death within five years in approximately half of patients.
New research reveals the physical and psychosocial factors that significantly increase the risk of low back pain onset. In fact results published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), show that being engaged in manual tasks involving awkward positions will increase the risk of low back pain by eight times. Those who are distracted during activities or fatigued also significantly increase their risk of acute low back pain.
While the diagnosis of an impending death is always sad, it can be important for patients, families, and clinicians as they make decisions related to hospital discharge, hospice referral, and treatments.
Rise in Maternal Opiate Use Exposes Infants to Withdrawal Symptoms, Birth Defects and Other Health Issues
Substance use during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, low birth weight, premature birth, seizures and neurobehavioral or cognitive defects.
Individuals previously infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) who receive chemotherapy or immunosuppressive treatment may be at risk of reactivating the disease according to a summary of report from the Emerging Trends Conference, “Reactivation of Hepatitis B,” and published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Reactivation of HBV can be fatal and the study authors suggest routine screening of HBV in all patients prior to the start of treatment with immunosuppressives or anti-cancer drugs.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., today announced the transition of three journals to the Wiley Open Access publishing program, bringing the total number of Wiley’s open access titles to 47.
Sex-based inequalities in life expectancy and quality due to heart disease are repeatedly described, but how gender and social structure play roles in this phenomenon are unclear. Women and men can equally benefit from secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation, and there is a need to understand gender barriers to uptake.
Kidney function can affect the potency and metabolism of drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys or other pathways, but little information is available on how to interpret the effects of kidney function on the benefits and risks of drugs in development.
Cell-free fetal DNA testing, which measures the relative amount of free fetal DNA in a pregnant woman’s blood, is a new screening test that indicates the risk of Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edward syndrome (trisomy 18), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13). A recent analysis of 37 published studies shows that the test can detect more than 99% of Down syndrome cases in singleton pregnancies, with a very low false positive rate of less than 0.1%. This makes it superior to all other testing methods.
Recent research indicates that most of the variation in hospital readmission rates in the United States is related to geography and other factors over which hospitals have little or no control. Access and quality of care outside of the hospital setting seem to be especially important.
Gene expression within neurons is critical for the formation of memories, but it's difficult to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning. Now researchers have successfully monitored the expression of genes in neurons after rats were exposed to auditory fear conditioning, in which a neutral auditory tone is paired with electric shock.
A 339-participant study indicates that sexual behavior among female university students in Sweden has gradually changed during the last 25 years, with behavior now appearing more risky than before.
The daily rhythm of bone turnover is likely important for normal bone health, and recent research suggests that sleep apnea may be an unrecognized cause of some cases of osteoporosis. Sleep apnea’s effects on sleep duration and quality, oxygen levels, inflammation, and other aspects of health may have a variety of impacts on bone metabolism.
As part of a special issue on surgical innovations in the British Journal of Surgery, a new review highlights the many advances that have been made in the use of optical imaging to guide cancer surgeries. For example, fluorescence imaging can provide surgeons with reliable and real-time feedback to better identify surgical targets and tumor margins. Also, early clinical data indicate that cancer detection and patient survival can be improved by use of fluorescently labeled tumor-targeting contrast agents. It is anticipated that the next 5 years will deliver many clinical studies in the field of image-guided surgery in various cancer types.
Researchers report that low levels of sodium in the blood, known as hyponatremia, increase the risk of dying for patients on the liver transplant waiting list. The study published in Liver Transplantation, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society, showed an increase in survival benefit for patients with hyponatremia and a Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or more.
Among patients with prostate cancer, those who smoke have increased risks of experiencing side effects from treatment and of developing future cancer recurrences, or even dying from prostate cancer.
A new analysis has found that many women with breast cancer lack knowledge about their illness, with minority patients less likely than white patients to know and report accurate information about their tumors’ characteristics.
Thyroid disease can have significant effects on a woman’s reproductive health and screening for women presenting with fertility problems and recurrent early pregnancy loss should be considered, suggests a new review published today (23 January) in The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist (TOG).
Taking a hormonal contraceptive for at least five years is associated with a possible increase in a young woman’s risk of developing a rare tumour, glioma of the brain. This project focussed on women aged 15 –49 years and the findings are published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.