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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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Many Young Children with Liver Failure Die while Waiting for a Transplant or Soon after Receiving One
A new analysis reveals unacceptable mortality rates in young US children with chronic liver disease while they are on transplant waiting lists as well as after transplantation.
Researchers have found that many teens and young adults with chronic liver conditions suffer from depression and anxiety, which can have considerable impacts on their emotional and physical health. The findings, which are published in Liver Transplantation, indicate that greater attention should be directed to the mental health of these young patients.
A new study examines how one early example of precision medicine—tumor genome testing—is being used in women with breast cancer to reduce overtreatment and maximize the benefits of chemotherapy. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study found that physician recommendations and final treatment decisions correlated highly with test results, suggesting genome testing helped physicians identify which patients could most benefit from chemotherapy, and those for whom chemotherapy could be safely omitted. Additionally, these personalized recommendations appeared to eliminate racial/ethnic and educational disparities in testing or treatment; however, many women who were tested inaccurately recalled their test results.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (NYSE: JWa, JWb) would like to acknowledge the laureates honored with the 2016 Nobel Prize. Six of these laureates have had their work published in Wiley’s medical, physiology, chemistry and economics journals and books.
Abaloparatide, a selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor, has recently been shown to reduce fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Now new research shows that abaloparatide increases bone mass in rats whose ovaries have been removed by stimulating bone formation, without effects on bone resorption.
In a study of 81 overweight and obese women with type 2 diabetes who usually consumed diet beverages and were on a weight loss program, those who substituted water for diet beverages after their lunch for 24 weeks had a greater decrease in weight (-6.40 vs. -5.25 kg) and body mass index (-2.49 vs. -2.06 kg/m2) compared with those who continued to consume diet beverages.
In a study of 110 women taking the breast cancer drug anastrozole, there were significant differences in patients’ blood levels of the drug that corresponded with variations in the ABCB1 gene. Furthermore, variants in the CYP19A1 gene were associated with additional joint pain and cancer recurrence in patients.
Interviews conducted in 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone revealed two themes: ‘Experiencing security by learning to manage risks’; and ‘Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears’.
Researchers have found that a protein called SLC6A14 is overexpressed by several fold in pancreatic tumors taken from patients and in cancerous pancreatic cells lines compared with normal pancreatic tissue or normal pancreatic cells. SLC6A14 transports amino acids into cells to help with cellular metabolism.
A new study provides critical information on how osteoarthritis may arise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
A recent interview study has uncovered factors that may contribute to the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) at the end of life.
Following recent outbreaks of Zika virus and the potential health dangers of infection, especially during pregnancy, scientists are striving to rapidly develop effective antiviral drugs that can halt transmission. Investigators who recently performed detailed analyses of the targets of a key enzyme of the Zika virus have uncovered peculiarities of the viral enzyme, called the NS3 protease.
Stem cells hold great promise for transforming medical care related to a diverse range of conditions, but the cells often lose some of their therapeutic potential when scientists try to grow and expand them in the laboratory. A new study, however, provides insights on the cellular mechanisms that might be targeted to help certain stem cells—called human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)—maintain properties needed to make them clinically useful.
A new study finds that the costs of breast cancer chemotherapy vary widely, even among treatment regimens with similar efficacy, and that patients bear a substantial out-of-pocket burden. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study is the first to examine these cost differences, providing clinicians with accessible information to answer patient questions about their treatment options.
Although individuals often consume natural products because of their potential health benefits, a new review indicates that it is not clear whether the benefits of plant-derived compounds that mimic estrogen outweigh the possible health risks. The findings are published in the British Journal of Pharmacology.
Researchers’ global estimates indicate that by 2025, some 268 million children aged 5 to 17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends.
A new article highlights the differences between older and younger adults living with HIV, and offers age-specific strategies on how to provide care.
Antibiotics are advised in most guidelines on diverticulitis, which arises when one or more small pouches in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected. Results from a randomized trial question the effectiveness of this practice, however.
A new review looks at the evidence behind the effectiveness of complementary or alternative therapies—including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fiber, and herbal medicinal products—for the treatment of bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, and ulcerative colitis.
Manual-therapy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are difficult to perform because it’s challenging to conceal a placebo when patients are able to physically feel a treatment that’s being delivered. Now, though, researchers have successfully completed the first manual-therapy RCT with a documented successful blinding. The three-armed trial evaluated the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) in the treatment of migraine versus placebo (sham chiropractic) and control (usual drug treatment).