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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. A new analysis indicates that following screening guidelines for HCC in cirrhotic patients is lifesaving and cost-effective compared with ‘real life’ monitoring.
Many older adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the United States are being prescribed older anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), and only half begin treatment with AEDs within the first 30 days of a potential epilepsy diagnosis.
In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women.
A national study from England indicates that older women are often not offered immediate breast reconstruction following a mastectomy, even though guidelines state that surgeons should discuss reconstruction with all suitable patients and that it should be available at the initial surgical operation.
A new study has found that poor strength in the thigh muscles may increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis in women but not men. This relationship was confounded by body mass index (BMI), which itself is known as a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis.
For reasons that are unclear, males are diagnosed with dyslexia more often than females. Researchers have now found that this may be due to males’ lower average and more variable reading performance relative to females’.
In a study of patients with Paget’s disease of bone—a common skeletal disorder that can lead to bone deformity, fractures, osteoarthritis, and bone pain—long-term intensive bisphosphonate therapy conferred no clinical benefit over giving bisphosphonates only when patients felt bone pain.
A recent analysis showed that although adult survivors of childhood cancer did not differ overall from their peers in terms of their satisfaction with their sex lives and romantic relationships, those who received cancer treatments that were especially toxic to the nervous system were least likely to have had intercourse, be in a relationship, or have children.
A new review provides valuable insights for improving the health care of girls and women living with female genital mutilation. Published on February 6th, which is International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, the article highlights what is currently known and what questions remain on how to address the needs of the millions of women and girls who are currently affected.
In a recent study, female fashion models reported high levels of pressure to lose weight, which was associated with higher odds of engaging in unhealthy behaviors to control weight. The study is the largest to date to explore disordered eating among professional models, and in particular to examine rates of specific unhealthy weight control behaviors.
Although one of the most serious complications of cirrhosis is liver cancer, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an analysis of health records revealed that the 10-year incidence of HCC in UK patients with cirrhosis is four percent or lower.
Two new studies provide valuable insights into the treatment of different types of vasculitis, which are conditions that cause blood vessels to become inflamed. In the studies, which appear in Arthritis & Rheumatology, investigators examine whether a medication that interferes with the activity of certain immune cells may help treat the most common form of vasculitis, as well as one of the rarest forms, both of which affect the large blood vessels.
Type 2 diabetes often causes damaging effects to the kidneys, sometimes resulting in the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation. The ongoing CANVAS-R trial is testing whether canagliflozin—a member of a new class of diabetes treatments known as sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors—can slow kidney function decline and provide other benefits to diabetic patients.
A new analysis reveals that for most women, the risk of dying from cervical cancer is higher than previously thought. Unlike prior estimates that also included women who had undergone a hysterectomy and were therefore no longer at risk, this analysis only included women with a cervix.
Despite improvements in medical care, about two-thirds of patients with Crohn’s disease develop complications requiring intestinal surgery at some time, and post-operative healing can be complicated. Clinicians now report that pre-operative optimisation of patients with Crohn’s disease with exclusive enteral nutrition (liquid nutrition formula) is associated with reduced rates of post-operative abscess or intestinal leakage by nine-fold.
New analyses of the published clinical studies indicate that antimicrobial sutures are effective for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs), and they can result in significant cost savings. The results are published in the British Journal of Surgery.
New research indicates that community-acquired pneumonia should not be regarded as a seasonal disease, as it occurs throughout all seasons; however, the pathogens that cause the condition are clearly subject to seasonal variations.
Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements that are often used by patients with high cholesterol, and it is often proposed as an alternative therapy in those who experience side effects from statins. A new study found that it is not a good choice for statin-intolerant patients: RYR was linked with muscle and liver injury, which can also occur with statin use.
Experts Seek to Educate Orthopaedic Researchers on the Ethical Use of Animals in Preclinical Studies
Recent initiatives by the Orthopaedic Research Society seek to improve animal research and ensure that it is performed to the highest ethical and scientific standards.
A new analysis of numerous studies indicates that men and women aged 60 years and older who have experienced a hip fracture are at increased risk of dying not only in the short term after the fracture, but also a number of years later.