Medicine & Healthcare
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Do electronic cigarettes help smokers to quit? Yes, but….
New Cochrane review finds emerging evidence that smokers who use electronic cigarettes can stop or reduce their smoking.
New research suggests that drugs commonly used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation may also be helpful for combating HIV.
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Researchers have found a possible underlying genetic susceptibility to being dependent on UV tanning.
Taking folic acid before conception significantly reduces the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) at birth, suggests a new study published today (26 November) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).
Adult survivors of retinoblastoma, a type of eye cancer that usually develops in early childhood, have few cognitive or social problems decades following their diagnosis and treatment.
Only half of patients take their medications as prescribed: are there interventions that will help them?
The cost of patients not taking their medications as prescribed can be substantial in terms of their health. Although a large amount of research evidence has tried to address this problem, there are no well-established approaches to help them, according to a new systematic review published in The Cochrane Library.
Organs can become significantly damaged during transplantation, but a new article published in the BJS (British Journal of Surgery) offers a protective strategy that could keep them safe and allow them to function optimally after the procedure.
Researchers from Denmark and the U.S. report that babies of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or pre-clinical RA—the period prior to symptoms—are 1.5 times more likely to be born prematurely in Denmark. Findings published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), indicate that body measurements of the baby at birth were only slightly lower in children exposed to maternal or preclinical RA compared to those with no exposure to the disease. Paternal RA was not found to impact fetal growth or preterm birth risk.
There are no approved treatments or preventatives against Ebola virus disease, but investigators have now designed peptides that mimic the virus’ N-trimer, a highly conserved region of a protein that’s used to gain entry inside cells.
Preeclampsia, a late-pregnancy disorder that is characterized by high blood pressure and organ damage, may be caused by problems related to meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, experts say in a new Anaesthesia paper.
In a study that looked at what factors might affect whether or not a patient receives intensive medical procedures in the last 6 months of life, investigators found that older age, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, living in a nursing home, and having an advance directive were associated with a lower likelihood of undergoing an intensive procedure. In contrast, living in a region with higher hospital care intensity and black race each doubled a patient’s likelihood of undergoing an intensive procedure.
In a study of middle-aged men who were overweight, researchers found that if a man’s parents were older at the time of his birth, he was more likely to have lower blood pressure, more favorable cholesterol levels, and improved glucose metabolism. It’s unknown whether the beneficial effect was due to having an older mother, an older father, or both.
Among overweight and obese adults who had asthma and participated in weight loss programs, more severe asthma, male sex, and improvements in eating behaviors were all linked with better success at losing weight.
A new study of emergency department patients in 18 countries, made available online today by the scientific journal Addiction, shows that the risk of injury caused by acute alcohol consumption is higher for women compared with men. While the risk of injury is similar for both men and women up to three ‘standard’ drinks (containing 16 ml or 12.8 g of pure ethanol), the risk then increases more rapidly for women, becoming twice the risk to men around 15 drinks and three times the risk to men around 30 drinks. In this study the drinks were reportedly consumed within six hours prior to injury.
Research during the past 30 years has found many benefits of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and newborns immediately after birth, particularly with aiding breastfeeding. However, in some hospitals, skin-to-skin contact following cesarean birth is not implemented, due to practices around the surgery. A recent Quality Improvement (QI) project demonstrated that women’s birth experiences were improved by implementing skin-to-skin contact after cesarean surgery.
Physicians Play a Critical Role in Ensuring Bladder Cancer Patients Understand the Link between Smoking and Their Disease
When bladder cancer patients are well-informed by their physicians, they acknowledge that tobacco use was likely the cause of their disease.
Fast, on-the-spot tests for bacterial infections may help to reduce excessive antibiotic use. A systematic review published in The Cochrane Library, found that when doctors tested for the presence of bacterial infections they prescribed fewer antibiotics.
Researchers from Australia report that low birth weight and preterm birth are linked to increased risk for osteoarthritis (OA)-related hip replacements in adulthood. Findings published in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) journal, Arthritis Care & Research, indicate that low birth weight and pre-term babies were not at greater risk of knee arthroplasty due to OA as adults.
Regardless of age, frailty is a strong risk factor for dying prematurely after a kidney transplant. The finding, which comes from a new study published in the American Journal of Transplantation, suggests that patients should be screened for frailty prior to kidney transplantation, and that those who are identified as frail should be closely monitored after the procedure.
A new study published today in The Cochrane Library, highlights the difficult decisions women with epilepsy have to face when they become pregnant. Taking certain drugs used to control epilepsy during pregnancy may be linked to developmental problems in children. The authors of the study say evidence on the safety of anti-epileptic drugs is limited and that more research is needed to ensure women and their doctors make the most informed choices.
Prostate Cancer Medications Linked with Increased Risk of Heart-Related Deaths in Men with Cardiovascular Problems
A new study has found that certain prostate cancer medications are linked with an increased risk of dying from heart-related causes in men with congestive heart failure or prior heart attacks. Published in BJU International, the findings will help doctors and patients weigh the benefits and risks of the drugs
A new study has found that patients who received chest radiation for Wilms tumor, a rare childhood cancer, face an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life due to their radiation exposure.