Medicine & Healthcare
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One year after the first Ebola cases started to surface in Guinea, the latest findings from a Cochrane review show new ways of hydrating patients in critical care environments across the world.
Family members often play an important role in providing care for patients with cancer, but which patients are more or less likely to involve family members in decisions regarding their care is not well known.
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Recent research indicates that most of the variation in hospital readmission rates in the United States is related to geography and other factors over which hospitals have little or no control. Access and quality of care outside of the hospital setting seem to be especially important.
Gene expression within neurons is critical for the formation of memories, but it's difficult to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning. Now researchers have successfully monitored the expression of genes in neurons after rats were exposed to auditory fear conditioning, in which a neutral auditory tone is paired with electric shock.
A 339-participant study indicates that sexual behavior among female university students in Sweden has gradually changed during the last 25 years, with behavior now appearing more risky than before.
The daily rhythm of bone turnover is likely important for normal bone health, and recent research suggests that sleep apnea may be an unrecognized cause of some cases of osteoporosis. Sleep apnea’s effects on sleep duration and quality, oxygen levels, inflammation, and other aspects of health may have a variety of impacts on bone metabolism.
As part of a special issue on surgical innovations in the British Journal of Surgery, a new review highlights the many advances that have been made in the use of optical imaging to guide cancer surgeries. For example, fluorescence imaging can provide surgeons with reliable and real-time feedback to better identify surgical targets and tumor margins. Also, early clinical data indicate that cancer detection and patient survival can be improved by use of fluorescently labeled tumor-targeting contrast agents. It is anticipated that the next 5 years will deliver many clinical studies in the field of image-guided surgery in various cancer types.
Researchers report that low levels of sodium in the blood, known as hyponatremia, increase the risk of dying for patients on the liver transplant waiting list. The study published in Liver Transplantation, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society, showed an increase in survival benefit for patients with hyponatremia and a Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or more.
Among patients with prostate cancer, those who smoke have increased risks of experiencing side effects from treatment and of developing future cancer recurrences, or even dying from prostate cancer.
A new analysis has found that many women with breast cancer lack knowledge about their illness, with minority patients less likely than white patients to know and report accurate information about their tumors’ characteristics.
Thyroid disease can have significant effects on a woman’s reproductive health and screening for women presenting with fertility problems and recurrent early pregnancy loss should be considered, suggests a new review published today (23 January) in The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist (TOG).
Taking a hormonal contraceptive for at least five years is associated with a possible increase in a young woman’s risk of developing a rare tumour, glioma of the brain. This project focussed on women aged 15 –49 years and the findings are published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Operative birth is associated with persisting pain during or after sexual intercourse, known as dyspareunia, suggests a new study published today (21 January) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).
Acute kidney injury often arises after major surgery because the kidneys can be deprived of normal blood flow during the procedure. The use of contrast media, or dyes, can contribute to this problem. In patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention, which are heart procedures that use dyes to help surgeons visualize the arteries, a high dose of the statin atorvastatin was linked with a reduction in blood levels of creatinine, a marker of kidney injury, as well as a lower incidence of acute kidney injury compared with a low dose of the statin.
Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. In a new study on colorectal cancer, researchers found that the mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can help identify whether a country has a higher mortality than might be expected based on cancer incidence. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs are more likely to lack such screening programs.
In the brain, blood flow and cognitive function peak during young adulthood, but a new study of 52 young women found that oxygen availability, which is known to positively relate to brain health and function, is higher in adults who exercise regularly. Women who exercised on a regular basis had higher oxygen availability in the anterior frontal region of the brain and performed best on difficult cognitive tasks.
In a survey of 348 workers at a large psychiatric hospital, 99% of the staff reported verbal conflict with patients, and 70% reported being assaulted during the previous 12 months. Verbal conflict with other staff was also high, at 92%.
A new study by researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts reveals that Asian and Hispanic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have lower mortality rates compared to Black, White, or Native Americans with the disease. Findings published in Arthritis & Rheumatology,a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), indicate that the risk for death among White patients is much lower than in Black and Native American SLE patients.
Obstetric interventions during an Ebola epidemic are deeply challenging say two new commentaries published today (14 January) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).
Many Cancer Survivors Have Unmet Physical and Mental Needs Related to their Disease and its Treatment
Even decades after being cured, many cancer survivors face physical and mental challenges resulting from their disease and its treatment. That’s the conclusion of a new study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The findings could help clinicians and other experts develop interventions that are tailored to the specific types of problems and concerns that cancer survivors may experience.
Medical co-morbidities, when women have one or more medical conditions, are found to be an important factor associated with direct maternal deaths, suggests a new study published today (9 January) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).
A new analysis suggests that women who use bisphosphonates—medications commonly used to treat osteoporosis and other bone conditions—have about half the risk of developing endometrial cancer as women who do not use the drugs.