Medicine & Healthcare
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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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A new comprehensive review examines the potential health benefits of resistant starch, a form of starch that is not digested in the small intestine and is therefore considered a type of dietary fibre. Some forms of resistant starch occur naturally in foods such as bananas, potatoes, grains, and legumes, and some are produced or modified commercially and incorporated into food products.
In research conducted in rats, investigators have shown for the first time the effect of rotator cuff tendon overuse, or tendinopathy, on surrounding tissues.
The use of biologics, which are generally made from human and/or animal materials, has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade, becoming the cornerstone treatment for many patients. Because the arsenal of biologics for rheumatoid arthritis includes numerous monoclonal antibodies with various mechanisms of action, it can be challenging to optimize treatments for individuals.
A health system becomes a learning system when it’s able to continuously study its own performance and put that knowledge to work to improve itself. In a new report, investigators describe how Johns Hopkins Medicine is working to enhance the value of healthcare it provides while expanding its ability to measure and analyze quality, safety, and other important variables.
Laparoscopic gastric bypass is an effective treatment for obesity, but a new study finds that patients who undergo the surgery often complain of gastrointestinal problems.
A new study found that more socially isolated breast cancer survivors had higher rates of recurrence and mortality, while women with larger social networks experienced better outcomes. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study found that some types of social ties were beneficial, while others were not, and that some types of relationships only benefited patients in certain racial or age groups.
Some patients with Crohn’s disease, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract, require surgery to remove part or all of the large intestine; however, surgery does not cure the condition and many patients relapse after surgery. A new review and analysis of published studies provides insights on the rates of relapse and predictors of relapse among Crohn’s disease patients who underwent surgical removal of the entire large intestine (total colectomy) and the creation of a permanent ileostomy (an opening in the abdominal wall).
In a study of older women, the prevalence of stress- and urgency urinary incontinence (SUI and UUI) was at least two-fold higher among women in the highest category of body mass index (BMI) or fat mass compared with women in the lowest category.
A Potential Target for Restoring Ejaculation in Men with Spinal Cord Injuries or Ejaculatory Disorders
New research provides insights on how to restore the ability to ejaculate in men who are not able to do so.
The presence of the allergen β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) in the milk of goats and other ungulates restricts the consumption of goat’s milk by humans. In a new study, researchers bred goats to lack BLG or to express human α-lactalbumin in place of BLG.
A new study urges caution in the use of the mannitol challenge test for asthma in non-clinical settings. The test is considered widely applicable to detect asthma, but its accuracy outside of patients referred for specialized respiratory has not been thoroughly explored before.
Certain medications are considered high risk in elders. In a recent study of 287 individuals ≥65 years who experienced a fall while hospitalized at an urban academic hospital, 62 percent of falls occurred in patients in whom high risk medications had been administered within the 24 hours before the fall.
In the largest study yet to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS) to treat incontinence in men following invasive prostate treatment, the overall success and dry rates were 90% and 64%, respectively, after a median of 31 months.
Having a child with cancer led to income reductions for parents and job discontinuation among mothers in a recent study, even after adjusting for pre-diagnosis sociodemographic factors. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings indicate that childhood cancer affects parents’ income and employment for years after the child’s diagnosis, and that these effects are not equally distributed among mothers and fathers.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a potentially serious liver condition characterized by excess fat in the liver associated with inflammation and scarring. NASH may progress to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer, and it can also compromise kidney function.
Exercise Programs May Not Provide Additional Benefits to Usual Physical Therapy Following Total Knee Replacement
In a randomized trial of patients who underwent total knee replacement as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a group program of strengthening and aerobic exercises was not better at alleviating long-term knee pain or overcoming activity limitations compared with usual care, which included physical therapy.
Researchers have found that fat-free mass index, but not body mass index, was a significant predictor of survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a debilitating form of pneumonia. Unlike body mass index, fat-free mass index takes into account the amount of muscle mass a person is carrying.
In a review of published studies addressing patients’ perceptions and factors influencing their reporting of adverse drug reactions, most patients were not aware of reporting systems and others were confused about reporting.
Vitamin D supplementation improved symptoms of autism in a recent trial.
A new analysis points to surprisingly low rates of serious impacts from medication errors affecting nursing home residents, despite the fact that these errors remain fairly common.