Medicine & Healthcare
Featured and Breaking News
New research out today concludes that there is limited evidence to show that xylitol is effective in preventing dental cavities in children and adults.
Stress Management Techniques Improve Long-Term Mood and Quality of Life in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer
A new study shows that providing women with skills to manage stress early in their breast cancer treatment can improve their mood and quality of life many years later.
You selected: Medicine & Healthcare
Individuals previously infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) who receive chemotherapy or immunosuppressive treatment may be at risk of reactivating the disease according to a summary of report from the Emerging Trends Conference, “Reactivation of Hepatitis B,” and published in Hepatology, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Reactivation of HBV can be fatal and the study authors suggest routine screening of HBV in all patients prior to the start of treatment with immunosuppressives or anti-cancer drugs.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., today announced the transition of three journals to the Wiley Open Access publishing program, bringing the total number of Wiley’s open access titles to 47.
Sex-based inequalities in life expectancy and quality due to heart disease are repeatedly described, but how gender and social structure play roles in this phenomenon are unclear. Women and men can equally benefit from secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation, and there is a need to understand gender barriers to uptake.
Kidney function can affect the potency and metabolism of drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys or other pathways, but little information is available on how to interpret the effects of kidney function on the benefits and risks of drugs in development.
Cell-free fetal DNA testing, which measures the relative amount of free fetal DNA in a pregnant woman’s blood, is a new screening test that indicates the risk of Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edward syndrome (trisomy 18), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13). A recent analysis of 37 published studies shows that the test can detect more than 99% of Down syndrome cases in singleton pregnancies, with a very low false positive rate of less than 0.1%. This makes it superior to all other testing methods.
Recent research indicates that most of the variation in hospital readmission rates in the United States is related to geography and other factors over which hospitals have little or no control. Access and quality of care outside of the hospital setting seem to be especially important.
Gene expression within neurons is critical for the formation of memories, but it's difficult to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning. Now researchers have successfully monitored the expression of genes in neurons after rats were exposed to auditory fear conditioning, in which a neutral auditory tone is paired with electric shock.
A 339-participant study indicates that sexual behavior among female university students in Sweden has gradually changed during the last 25 years, with behavior now appearing more risky than before.
The daily rhythm of bone turnover is likely important for normal bone health, and recent research suggests that sleep apnea may be an unrecognized cause of some cases of osteoporosis. Sleep apnea’s effects on sleep duration and quality, oxygen levels, inflammation, and other aspects of health may have a variety of impacts on bone metabolism.
As part of a special issue on surgical innovations in the British Journal of Surgery, a new review highlights the many advances that have been made in the use of optical imaging to guide cancer surgeries. For example, fluorescence imaging can provide surgeons with reliable and real-time feedback to better identify surgical targets and tumor margins. Also, early clinical data indicate that cancer detection and patient survival can be improved by use of fluorescently labeled tumor-targeting contrast agents. It is anticipated that the next 5 years will deliver many clinical studies in the field of image-guided surgery in various cancer types.
Researchers report that low levels of sodium in the blood, known as hyponatremia, increase the risk of dying for patients on the liver transplant waiting list. The study published in Liver Transplantation, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society, showed an increase in survival benefit for patients with hyponatremia and a Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or more.
Among patients with prostate cancer, those who smoke have increased risks of experiencing side effects from treatment and of developing future cancer recurrences, or even dying from prostate cancer.
A new analysis has found that many women with breast cancer lack knowledge about their illness, with minority patients less likely than white patients to know and report accurate information about their tumors’ characteristics.
Thyroid disease can have significant effects on a woman’s reproductive health and screening for women presenting with fertility problems and recurrent early pregnancy loss should be considered, suggests a new review published today (23 January) in The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist (TOG).
Taking a hormonal contraceptive for at least five years is associated with a possible increase in a young woman’s risk of developing a rare tumour, glioma of the brain. This project focussed on women aged 15 –49 years and the findings are published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Operative birth is associated with persisting pain during or after sexual intercourse, known as dyspareunia, suggests a new study published today (21 January) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).
Acute kidney injury often arises after major surgery because the kidneys can be deprived of normal blood flow during the procedure. The use of contrast media, or dyes, can contribute to this problem. In patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention, which are heart procedures that use dyes to help surgeons visualize the arteries, a high dose of the statin atorvastatin was linked with a reduction in blood levels of creatinine, a marker of kidney injury, as well as a lower incidence of acute kidney injury compared with a low dose of the statin.
Disparities in cancer screening, incidence, treatment, and survival are worsening globally. In a new study on colorectal cancer, researchers found that the mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can help identify whether a country has a higher mortality than might be expected based on cancer incidence. Countries with lower-than-expected MIRs have strong national health systems characterized by formal colorectal cancer screening programs. Conversely, countries with higher-than-expected MIRs are more likely to lack such screening programs.
In the brain, blood flow and cognitive function peak during young adulthood, but a new study of 52 young women found that oxygen availability, which is known to positively relate to brain health and function, is higher in adults who exercise regularly. Women who exercised on a regular basis had higher oxygen availability in the anterior frontal region of the brain and performed best on difficult cognitive tasks.
In a survey of 348 workers at a large psychiatric hospital, 99% of the staff reported verbal conflict with patients, and 70% reported being assaulted during the previous 12 months. Verbal conflict with other staff was also high, at 92%.