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Majority of stillbirth cases remain unexplained, suggesting post mortem investigation needs to be refined, GOSH research finds
Analysis by a Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) led team looking at the effectiveness of different elements of the post mortem process shows that, despite full standard investigation, in the majority of cases of stillbirth the cause remains unknown. The papers highlight the need for further research to improve post mortem techniques to better detect a cause of death.
The findings, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, come from the first systematic review of studies focused on oral health and cognition.
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In a study of 110 women taking the breast cancer drug anastrozole, there were significant differences in patients’ blood levels of the drug that corresponded with variations in the ABCB1 gene. Furthermore, variants in the CYP19A1 gene were associated with additional joint pain and cancer recurrence in patients.
Interviews conducted in 2015 with eight nurses and one physician who had worked in Ebola care in Sierra Leone revealed two themes: ‘Experiencing security by learning to manage risks’; and ‘Developing courage and growth by facing personal fears’.
Researchers have found that a protein called SLC6A14 is overexpressed by several fold in pancreatic tumors taken from patients and in cancerous pancreatic cells lines compared with normal pancreatic tissue or normal pancreatic cells. SLC6A14 transports amino acids into cells to help with cellular metabolism.
A new study provides critical information on how osteoarthritis may arise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
A recent interview study has uncovered factors that may contribute to the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) at the end of life.
Following recent outbreaks of Zika virus and the potential health dangers of infection, especially during pregnancy, scientists are striving to rapidly develop effective antiviral drugs that can halt transmission. Investigators who recently performed detailed analyses of the targets of a key enzyme of the Zika virus have uncovered peculiarities of the viral enzyme, called the NS3 protease.
Stem cells hold great promise for transforming medical care related to a diverse range of conditions, but the cells often lose some of their therapeutic potential when scientists try to grow and expand them in the laboratory. A new study, however, provides insights on the cellular mechanisms that might be targeted to help certain stem cells—called human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)—maintain properties needed to make them clinically useful.
A new study finds that the costs of breast cancer chemotherapy vary widely, even among treatment regimens with similar efficacy, and that patients bear a substantial out-of-pocket burden. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study is the first to examine these cost differences, providing clinicians with accessible information to answer patient questions about their treatment options.
Although individuals often consume natural products because of their potential health benefits, a new review indicates that it is not clear whether the benefits of plant-derived compounds that mimic estrogen outweigh the possible health risks. The findings are published in the British Journal of Pharmacology.
Researchers’ global estimates indicate that by 2025, some 268 million children aged 5 to 17 years may be overweight, including 91 million obese, assuming no policy interventions have proven effective at changing current trends.
A new article highlights the differences between older and younger adults living with HIV, and offers age-specific strategies on how to provide care.
Antibiotics are advised in most guidelines on diverticulitis, which arises when one or more small pouches in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected. Results from a randomized trial question the effectiveness of this practice, however.
A new review looks at the evidence behind the effectiveness of complementary or alternative therapies—including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fiber, and herbal medicinal products—for the treatment of bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, and ulcerative colitis.
Manual-therapy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are difficult to perform because it’s challenging to conceal a placebo when patients are able to physically feel a treatment that’s being delivered. Now, though, researchers have successfully completed the first manual-therapy RCT with a documented successful blinding. The three-armed trial evaluated the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) in the treatment of migraine versus placebo (sham chiropractic) and control (usual drug treatment).
Although new drugs must be shown to be both safe and effective for approval by the Food and Drug Administration, sick newborns receive most of their drug treatment off-label and without the evidence provided for adults and older children. A new editorial looks at the challenges of performing clinical trials in newborns, from the reluctance of parents to enroll their infants to the lack of experience of pediatricians and neonatologists in conducting clinical research.
A new study found that patients waiting for a liver transplant tend to be highly sedentary. Also, patients’ self-assessments of their physical activity, and even their doctors’ assessments, do not reliably indicate patients’ actual physical performance.
In a study of adults with asthma, active individuals had slightly less lung function decline than inactive individuals.
A new analysis reveals that cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF, a deterioration of liver function in patients with cirrhosis that results in the failure of one or more organs) represent a substantial and increasing health and economic burden in the United States.
Following a sudden death at a residential care unit, the Dutch Health and Care Inspectorate advised to intensify the use of video monitoring at the unit. Researchers now report that such video monitoring can help detect seizures at night, but the costs are high.
A new review based on a research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health highlights the potentially damaging effects of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) on the liver.