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Materials Processing During Casting

ISBN: 978-0-470-01513-1
488 pages
May 2006
Materials Processing During Casting (0470015136) cover image


Casting is one of the most important processes in materials technology. In this unique book, each step in the casting and solidification process is described and models are set up, which in many cases can be approximated by simplified analytical expressions. All casting methods are featured, including component casting, ingot casting and continuous casting.

Applications of the results are given in numerous worked examples within the text. Conclusions on how to avoid cracks, solidification pores, slag inclusions and other defects of the castings, can be drawn from the theoretical models. These conclusions are based on research results, which together give an idea of the development in the manufacture of castings. Most chapters conclude with a number of exercises, answers to which are given at the end of the book. The accompanying 'Guide to Exercises', provides the complete solutions to each of the exercises.

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Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Component Casting.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Casting of Components.

Chapter 2: Cast House Processes.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Ingot Casting.

2.3 Continuous Casting.

2.4 From Ladle to Chill-mould in Continuous Casting of Steel.

2.5 Near Net Shape Casting.

2.6 The ESR Process.

Chapter 3 Casting Hydrodynamics.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Basic Hydrodynamics.

3.3 Gating Systems in Component Casting.

3.4 Gating System in Ingot Casting.

3.5 Gating System in Continuous Casting.

3.6 Inclusion Control in Gating Systems – Ceramic Filters.

3.7 Maximum Fluidity Length.



Chapter 4: Heat Transport during Component Casting.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Basic Concepts and Laws of Heat Transport.

4.3 Theory of Heat Transport in Casting of Metals and Alloys.

4.4 Heat Transport in Component Casting.



Chapter 5: Heat Transport in Cast House Processes.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Natural Convection in Metal Melts.

5.3 Heat Transport in Ingot Casting.

5.4 Water Cooling.

5.5 Heat Transport during Continuous Casting of Steel.

5.6 Heat Transport in the ESR Process.

5.7 Heat Transport in Near Net Shape Casting.

5.8 Heat Transport in Spray Casting.



Chapter 6: Structure and Structure Formation in Cast Materials.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Structure Formation in Cast Materials.

6.3 Dendrite Structure and Dendrite Growth.

6.4 Eutectic Structure and Eutectic Growth.

6.5 Cooling Curves and Structure.

6.6 Unidirectional Solidification.

6.7 Macrostructures in Cast Materials.

6.8 Macrostructures in Ingot Cast Materials.

6.9 Macrostructures in Continuously Cast Materials.

6.10 Macrostructures in Near Net Shape Cast Materials.

6.11 Amorphous Metals.



Chapter 7: Microsegregation in Alloys – Peritectic Reactions and Transformations.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Cooling Curves, Dendritic Growth, and Microsegregation.

7.3 Scheil’s Segregation Equation – a Model of Microsegregation.

7.4 Solidification Processes in Alloys.

7.5 Influence of Back Diffusion in the Solid Phase on Microsegregation of Alloys.

7.6 Solidification Processes and Microsegregation in Iron-base Alloys.

7.7 Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Binary Iron-base Alloys.

7.8 Microsegregation in Multicomponent Alloys.

7.9 Microsegregation and Peritectic Reactions and Transformations in Multicomponent Iron-base Alloys.



Chapter 8: Heat Treatment and Plastic Forming.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Homogenization.

8.3 Dissolution of Secondary Phases.

8.4 Change of Casting Structure During Cooling and Plastic Deformation.

8.5 Cooling Shrinkage and Stress Relief Heat Treatment.

8.6 Hot Isostatic Pressing.



Chapter 9: Precipitation of Pores and Slag Inclusions during Casting Processes.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Units and Laws.

9.3 Precipitation of Gases in Metal Melts.

9.4 Precipitation of Inclusions in Metal Melts.

9.5 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys.

9.6 Copper and Copper Alloys.

9.7 Steel and Iron Alloys.

9.8 Cast Iron.

9.9 Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys.



Chapter 10: Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage of Metals and Alloys.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage.

10.3 Concepts and Laws. Methods of Measurement.

10.4 Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage during Casting.

10.5 Solidification Shrinkage during Ingot Casting.

10.6 Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage during Continuous Casting.

10.7 Thermal Stress and Crack Formation during Solidification and Cooling Processes.



Chapter 11: Macrosegregation in Alloys.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Macrosegregation due to Solidification Shrinkage.

11.3 Macrosegregation during Unidirectional Solidification.

11.4 Inverse Macrosegregation.

11.5 Macrosegregation during Continuous Casting.

11.6 Centre Segregation during Continuous Casting.

11.7 Freckles.

11.8 Macrosegregation during Horizontal Solidification.

11.9 Macrosegregations in Steel Ingots.



Answers to Exercises.


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Author Information

Dr Hasse Fredriksson is professor in Casting of Metals at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. He is the leader of a very active research group since more than three decades. Dr Fredriksson is internationally known. He is author or co-author to more than 200 scientific papers. He has organized many Summer schools and international conferences in his field, the last one in June 2005.

Dr Ulla Åkerlind is a physicist (research field molecular physics) with long experience of undergraduate teaching at the Department of Physics at the University of Stockholm. She has co-operated in a set of text books in basic physics for the Swedish 'gymnasium' and produced learning aids for the undergraduate university level in physics.

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The Wiley Advantage

  • Written by a world authority, Professor Fredriksson, with over 25 years in research
  • Definitive text in the area
  • Mathematical derivations are included in text boxes, separated from the text, which offer a possibility to omit them and to moderate the level for the audience
  • Worked solutions to the exercises
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"…an excellent text for a metallurgy or materials engineering program…scientists and engineers working in this field would benefit by having access to this book." (Journal of Metals Online, September 27, 2006)
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