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Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability

Fabrizio Ruggeri (Editor-in-Chief), Ron Kenett (Editor-in-Chief), Frederick Faltin (Editor-in-Chief)
ISBN: 978-0-470-01861-3
1800 pages
January 2008
Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability (0470018615) cover image
An essential reference for statisticians, engineers, and quality professionals in industry, academia, and government, Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability offers an essential knowledge source in an area where one is sorely needed. Providing a practical orientation with a large selection of case studies, this multi-volume state-of-the-art publication examines the widespread use of Six Sigma. This popular quality measuring technique is a highly adaptable tool with many wide-reaching applications in a large variety of sectors.
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Entries in the published Encyclopedia are presented in alphabetic order. The following listing shows articles grouped under the section headings used for editorial planning of the work.

Basic Statistics

Assignable cause

Autocorrelation function

Bias of an estimator

Box and Cox transformation

Coefficient of determination (R2)

Collinearity

Confidence intervals

Correlation

Covariance

Covariate

Cumulative distribution function (CDF)

Data collection

Degrees of freedom

Dependence

Descriptive Statistics

Estimation

Expectation

Exploratory data analysis

Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA)

Graphical representation of data

Heteroscedasticity

Homogeneity of Variances; Homoscedasticity

Hotelling’s T2

Hypothesis testing

Kurtosis

Lack of fit

Laws of large numbers

Least squares estimation

Leverage

Maximum likelihood

Mean square error

Measures of Association

Measures of Location

Measures of Scale

Missing data and imputation

Moments

Monte Carlo methods

Moving averages

Multi-vari chart

Multivariate analysis

Nonparametric Tests

Normal distribution

Normality Tests

Observational studies

Outliers

Overview of Statistics

Parametric tests

Pareto chart

Pooled variance, pooled estimate

Power

Probability density function (PDF)

Probability density functions

Probability plots

Probability theory

P-values

Quantiles

Quartiles

Residuals

Runs, runs tests

Sample Size Determination

Sigma Metric

Significance level

Six Sigma Method

Skewness

Standard error

Statistical Methods for Counts, Rates and Proportions

Sum of squares

Time series analysis

Transfer function

Trimmed mean

Variables

Variance

Variance components

Computationally Intensive Methods & Simulation

Asymptotic  Reliability Analysis of Very Large Systems

Bayesian networks in reliability

Bayesian robustness: theory and computation

Bootstrap And Jacknife: Overview

Classification and Regression Tree Methods

Computational Issues in Network Reliability

Convergence and Mixing in Markov Chain Monte Carlo

Data Mining in Quality and Reliability

decision search via simulation

Density and failure rate estimation

Dirichlet process, Simulation of

Discrete event simulation for reliability prediction

Dynamic ProgrammingMethods in Repair and Replacement

Evaluation techniques in data mining

Expectation Maximisation Algorithm

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, Implementation of

Fault tree analysis for large systems

Integrating computer and physical experiment data

Laplace approximations in Bayesian lifetime analysis

Levy Processes, Simulation of

Life Distributions, Simulation of

Lifetime Distributions, Optimization Methods for

Markov chain Monte Carlo, Introduction

Monte Carlo Methods: Univariate and Multivariate

Neural networks in Statistical Process Control

Optimal Reliability Design- Algorithms and Comparisons

Optimal Reliability Design- Modelling

Perfect Sampling

Polya Trees and Their Use in Reliability and Survival Analysis

quality control, Computing in

quandrature and numerical integration

Resampling for lifetime distributions

Simulation of the beta-Stacy process

Smoothed Function Estimation for Censored Data

Splines and other meta-models in reliability analysis

Survival Analysis , Nonparametric

Design of Experiments & Robust Design

Aliasing in Fractional Designs

Analysis of Variance

Assessment of Experimental Designs

Bergman-Hynen Method for Dispersion Effects

Blocking

Box-Behnken Designs

Box-Meyer Method for Dispersion Effects

Center Points

Central Composite Designs

Computer Experiments

Dispersion Effects

Factorial Designs, Resolution of

Factorial Experiments

Foldover Designs

Fractional Factorial Designs

Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) Studies

Generalized Linear Models

Half-normal Plot

Harvey's Method for Dispersion Effects

Incomplete Block Designs

Interactions

Latin Hypercube Designs

Latin Squares and Related Experimental Designs

Lenth's Method for the Analysis of Unreplicated Experiments

Main Effect Designs

Main Effects

Minimum Aberration

Mixture Experiments

Optimal Design

Orthogonal Arrays

Performance Measures for Robust Design

Plackett- Burman Designs

Product Array Designs

Projectivity in Experimental Designs

Randomization in Experimental Designs

Response Surface Methodology

Ridge Analysis in Experimental Design

Robust Design

Rotatable Designs and Rotatability

Sample-Size Determination in Experimental Designs

Screening Designs

Sequential Experimentation

Signal Response Systems

Signal-to-Noise Ratios for Robust Design

Split-Plot Designs

Supersaturated Designs

Tolerance Design

Uniform Experimental Designs

Health, Safety & Environmental Applications

Bias in Modeling and Monitoring Health Outcomes

Case Series Analysis, Vaccine Safety Evaluation Using a Suitable Motivating Example.

Case-control Studies

Clinical Behaviour Change

Disease Mapping

Disease Surveillance

Disease and Clinical Trial Modelling

Early Detection Programs in Medical Care

Fisheries Stock Assessment

Health Care Policy and Management of Stroke, Breast Cancer, and Mental Health

Healthcare Performance Reports

Intercalibration Studies

Monitoring of Safety in EU Railways

Multiple Modes in Proficiency Test Data

Patient Opinion Measures

Population Characteristics of Proficiency Test Data

Quality in Critical Care Medicine

Sampling sediments in the Marine Environment

Statistical Issues in Vaccine Safety Evaluation

Statistical Process Control in Clinical Medicine

Management of Quality & Business Statistics

Attractive Quality

Benchmarking in Project Definition

Brainstorming

Cause and Effect Diagrams 

Change Management

Concept Selection Matrices

Contingency Table

Contingency Table,Square

Cost of Quality

Creativity tools 

Critical-To-Quality matrices

Data and Information Quality

Directed Evolution +B35

Error proofing Healthcare

Factor Relationship Diagrams 

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

Kaizen

Lean Accounting

Lean Methods, Creating Flow with

Multi-vari Charts

Organizational Assessment Models

Policy Deployment Drives Performance Improvement

Process Maps and Statistics

Process Maps: Construction of

Process Reengineering

Project management : Stage Gate Approach to

Quality Function Deployment 

Quality Management, Overview

Scorecards

Six Sigma

Statistical Efficiency

Statistical quality control 

Target costing

Team building

Theory of constraints 

Total Productive maintenance

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Value-stream analysis  in Quality Management

Work out

Process Capability & Measurement Systems Analysis

Calibration

Capability Indices for Multiple Stream Processes

Capability Measures for Measurement Systems Analysis 

Comparison of Multivariate Process Capability Indices

Control Charts and Process Capability

Cp, Cpk

Defects per Million Opportunities

Defects per Unit

Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) Studies, Confidence Intervals for

Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) Studies, Destructive Testing

Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) Studies, Misclassification Rates

Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R), Variance Components in

Interlaboratory Comparisons

Measurement Error and Uncertainty

Measurement Systems Analysis, Attribute

Measurement Systems Analysis, Overview

Pp, Ppk

Process Capability Indices, Alternative to

Process Capability Indices, Bayesian Estimation of

Process Capability Indices, Multivariate

Process Capability Indices, Non-normal

Process Capability Indices, Nonparametric

Process Capability Plots

Process Capability, Error in Estimating of

Process Yield

Sigma Level of a Process

Skewed Process Capability Indices

Statistical Process Control, Multivariate

The Comparison of Process Capability Indices

Yield Surface Modeling

Process Control

ARIMA Modeling

Autocorrelated Data

Average Run Lengths and Operating Characteristic Curves

Change Point Methods

Control Charts for Attributes

Control Charts for Batch Processes

Control Charts for Short Production Runs

Control Charts for the Mean

Control Charts for the Standard Deviation

Control Charts, Nonparametric

Control Charts, Overview

Control Charts, Selection of

Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) Chart

Economic Design of Control Charts

Engineering Process Control 

Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart

Feed-Back Control

Hotelling’s T2 Chart

Interpretation of Multivariate Control Charts

Moving Range and R Charts

Multivariate Charts for Variability

Multivariate Control Charts Overview

Multivariate Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) Chart 

Multivariate EWMA Control Chart

Neural Networks: Construction and Evaluation

Precontrol

Profile Monitoring

Regression Control Charts

Variable Sampling Rate Control Charts

Reliability: Life Cycle & Warranty Cost Prediction

Age Dependent Minimal Repair and Maintenance

Analysis of Recurrent Events from Repairable Systems

Burn-In and Maintenance Policies

Cumulative Damage Models Based on Gamma Processes

Degradation Models

Expert Opinion in Reliability

General Minimum Repair Models

Global and Dynamic Information Measures for Reliability

Group Maintenance Policies

Imperfect Repair

Inspection Policies for Reliability

Life Cycle Costs and Reliability Engineering

Load Sharing Models

Maintenance Optimization

Maintenance Optimization in Random Environments.

Markov Renewal Processes in Reliability Modeling

Masked Failure Data: Competing Risks

Multiattribute Warranty Policies

Multicomponent Maintenance

Multi-State Reliability Theory

Multivariate Age and Multivariate Renewal Replacement

Multivariate Imperfect Repair Models

Nonparametric and Semiparametric Bayesian Reliability Analysis

Nonparametric Methods for Analysis of Repair Data

Reliability Growth Modeling

Repair Data, sets of: how to Graph, Analyse, and Compare

Replacement Strategies

Stationary Replacement Strategies

System Availability

Total Time on Tests Plots

Warranty Claims and Costs: Statistical Analysis of

Warranty Cost Analysis

Warranty Cost Prediction Based on Warranty Data

Warranty Modeling

Warranty Servicing

Warranty: Usage and Wear Process for

Reliability: Life Distribution Modeling & Accelerated Testing

Accelerated Life Tests, Bayesian Models

Accelerated Life Tests: Analysis with Competing Failure Modes

Accelerated Life Tests: Nonparametric Approach

Accelerated Life Tests:Bayesian Design

Accelerated Life Tests:Classical Methods for Design and Analysis

Accelerated Life Tests:Designs Comparison with a Bayesian Framework

Accelerated Life Tests:Step Stress (Classical Methods)

Cumulative hazard function

Design for Reliability

Hazard function

Intensity function

Life Testing from a Bayesian Perspective

Masked Failure Data

Mean residual life

Mean time between failures

Mean time to failure

Mean time to repair

Prediction of Expected Fatigue Lives of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Joints

Proportional hazard model

Rate of occurrence of failures

Reliability function

Software Failure Data Analysis

The Cox Proportional Hazard Model

Sampling

Acceptance Sampling in Modern Industrial Environments

Adaptive and Spatial Sampling Designs.

Attribute Sampling Schemes in International Standards

Attributes Sampling Under Classification Error

Continuous Sampling

Data Management in Survey Sampling

Database Systems for Acceptance Sampling

Design and Testing of Questionnaires

Economic Sampling Schemes

Internal and External Quality Measures

Multiple Sampling Plans

Prior Information in Sampling Schemes.

Processing of Survey Data

Rectification Sampling Schemes

Reliability Sampling

Sampling Designs in Surveys

Sampling from Virtual Populations

Sampling in Data Mining (subsampling)

Sampling in Implementation of Statistical Process Control

Sampling in Industrial Standards

Sampling in Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industries

Sampling in Semiconductor Manufacturing.

Sampling in Software Development

Sampling Inspection of Products

Sampling Inspection of Products and Statistical Process Control

Selection and Validation of Response Scales

SERVQUAL Surveys

Single Sampling by Attributes and by Variables.

Skip-lot Sampling and Chain Sampling

Statistical Analysis of Survey Data

Survey Error

Survey Quality and Survey Ethics

Variables Sampling Schemes in International Standards

Variables Sampling Under Measurement Error.

Statistical and Stochastic Modeling

Accelerated Life Models

Aging and Positive Dependance

Applications of Extreme Statistics in Science and Engineering

Availability Models

Bayesian Control Charts

Bayesian Networks

Bayesian Reliability Analysis

Bayesian Reliability Demonstration

Brownian Motion

Causality

Change-Point Models

Characterization in Reliability

Competing Risks

Damage Processes

Degradation and Failure

Degradation Processes

Design of Bayesian Reliability Experiments

Empirical Bayes Estimation of Reliability

Hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for Bayesian System Reliability

Levy Processes

Maintenance and Markov Decision Models

Markov Processes

Masked Failure Data: Bayesian Modeling

Multivariate Mixtures Models- Related Aging and Dependance Properties

Multivariate Stochastic Orders and Aging

Physical Degradation Models

Poisson Processes

Precedence Tests

Prior Distribution Elicitation

Random Evolutions toward Applications

Renewal Theory

Risk Analysis,Extremes in

Risk Processes

Scan Statistics

Software Reliability Modeling and Analysis

Software Reliability: Bayesian Analysis

Statistical Process Control, Bayesian

Stochastic Deterioration

Stochastic Orders and Aging Notions

Subjective Life Models

System Signatures

System Reliability

Block Replacement

Coherent Systems

Component Reliability Importance

Fault Trees

Flowgraph models

Genetic Algorithms in Reliability

Imperfect Repair, Counting Processes

Intensity Functions for Nonhomogeneous Poisson Processes

k-out-of-n Systems

Modules and Modular Decomposition

Parallel, Series, and SeriesParallel Systems

Path Sets and Cut Sets  in System Reliability Modeling

Queues in Reliability

Reliability Allocation

Reliability Databases

Reliability of Redundant Systems

Reliability Optimization

Reliability, Safety, and Risk Management

Repairable Systems Reliability

Repairable systems, statistical inference

Repairable Systems: Bayesian analysis

Stress-Strength Model

System Downtime Distributions

System Reliability: Computational Algebra Methods

System Reliability:Monte-Carlo Estimation.

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Editors-in-Chief

Fabrizio Ruggeri, CNR-IMATI, Milan, ItalyProf. Ruggeri's research interests include reliability, general statistical modelling with applications in industry, and Bayesian statistics. He is a former President of the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS) and former Board member of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis (ISBA). He edited two volumes on Bayesian Robustness and special issues of journals. He also served as the Editor (1999-2002) of the ISBA Bulletin and is currently Editor-in-Chief of Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry and an Editor of Bayesian Analysis. He is Co-Director of the Applied Bayesian Statistics summer school (ABS) and Chair of the Scientific Committee of the Bayesian Inference in Stochastic Processes (BISP) series of workshops. He is a faculty in the Ph.D. programme in Mathematics and Statisics at the University of Pavia and the Master programme in Applied Mathematics for Industry at University of Milano Bicocca. He has been member of many committees, including Savage Award, De Groot Award and Box Medal. He is the author of nearly 100 publications.

Ron S. Kenett, KPA Ltd, Raanana, Israel and University of Turin, Turin, Italy. Professor Kenett’s interests include Strategic Planning and Quality Management, Industrial Statistics and Biostatistics, Statistical Process Control and Design of Experiments, Survey Methodology and Software Quality. He is a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, a Senior Member of the American Society for Quality,past member of the board of the Israeli Statistical Association and past president of ENBIS, the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics. He is editor in chief of the journal Quality Technology and Quantitative Management and associate editor of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (A) and Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry. He is co author of 4 books and over 130 papers, including Modern Industrial Statistics (with S. Zacks), Duxbury Press 1998, and  Software Process Quality - Management and Control (with E. Baker) Marcel Dekker Inc., 1999. Ron has been a consultant for leading corporations such as AT&T, hp, EDS, SanDisk, IBM and Amdocs. His career has combined academic positions with activity in the industrial and business sector.

Frederick W. Faltin, The Faltin Group, Cody, WY, USAMr. Faltin’s interests include Managing Six Sigma, Design for Six Sigma, Business Process Simulation & Optimization, Financial Quality, Supply Chain Management, and Design of Experiments.  He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, a recipient of the Shewell Prize of the American Society for Quality, and has served on the selection committees of various ASQ awards. He served on the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Quality Technology, is a past Chair of ASA's Quality and Productivity Section, and is a member of the boards of the Quality & Productivity Research Conference and the Fall Technical Conference. Mr. Faltin has published dozens of papers on applications of mathematics & statistics, and has authored Six Sigma curricula for a number of prominent companies, including Motorola—the company that invented Six Sigma. He was formerly manager of the Strategic Enterprise Technologies laboratory at GE’s Global Research Center, and is today Managing Director of The Faltin Group, which he founded in 1999.

Editors

Basics Statistics

Jeroen de Mast, University of Amsterdam,

The Netherlands

Computationally Intensive Methods & Simulation

Simon Wilson, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Design of Experiments & Robust Design

David Steinberg, Tel Aviv University, Israel

Health, Safety & Environmental Applications

Tony Greenfield, Greenfield Research, UK

Management of Quality & Business Statistics

Blanton Godfrey, College of Textiles, USA

Ramon Leon, University of Tennessee, USA

Process Capability & Measurement Systems Analysis

Connie Borror, University of Illinois, USA

Process Control

Mike Adams, University of Alabama, USA

Reliability: Life Cycle & Warranty Cost Prediction

Refik Soyer, George Washington University, USA

Reliability: Life Distribution Modeling & Accelerated Testing

Tom Mazzuchi, George Washington University, USA

Sampling

Rainer Göb, University of Wuerzberg, Germany

Statistical and Stochastic Modelling

Shelley Zacks, Binghamton University, USA

System Reliability

Steven Rigdon, Southern Illinois University, USA

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"I must say that this encyclopedia is a must-have for everyone working on quality and reliability. It is an excellent source of information." (Technometrics, May 2010)

"[The text] could provide the initial go-to text for any person researching or working within the field of quality. The production is good, with a nice layout and well bound pages … .The journey through the pages is often interrupted by an unlikely article that catches the attention which is the delight of paper texts." (Accreditation and Quality Assurance, February 2009)
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