Wood Modification: Chemical, Thermal and Other Processes
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List of Abbreviations.
1. The Use of Timber in the Twenty-first Century
1.2 Nonrenewables: a Finite and Exhaustible Resource.
1.3 Renewable Materials.
1.4 The Global Timber Resource.
1.5 Timber Production.
1.6 Wood Preservation.
1.7 Preservative-treated Wood and Legislation.
1.8 Competition from Nonrenewable Materials.
1.9 The Need for Wood Modification.
2. Modifying the Properties of Wood.
2.2 Wood Properties and Wood Modification.
2.3 Wood Modification Methods.
2.4 The Cell Wall of Wood.
2.5 The Chemical Constituents of Wood.
2.6 The Wood–Water Relationship.
2.7 The Mechanical Properties of Modified Wood.
2.8 Modified Wood and Biological Degradation.
2.9 Wood and Weathering.
2.10 Proof of Bonding.
3. Chemical Modification of Wood (I): Acetic Anhydride Modification.
3.2 Reaction Protocols.
3.3 Cell Wall Reactivity.
3.4 Analysis of Anhydride-modified Wood.
3.5 Dimensional Stability.
3.6 Mechanical Properties.
3.7 Microbiological Degradation.
3.8 Biological Degradation by Insects and Marine Organisms.
3.9 Moisture Relationships of Anhydride-modified Wood.
3.10 Composites Utilizing Acetic Anhydride Modified Wood.
4. Chemical Modification of Wood (II): Reaction with Other Chemicals.
4.2 Reaction of Wood with Other Noncyclic Anhydrides.
4.3 Reaction of Wood with Cyclic Anhydrides.
4.4 Acetylation Using Ketene Gas.
4.5 Carboxylic Acid Modification.
4.6 Acid Chloride Modification.
4.7 Isocyanate Modification.
4.8 Epoxide Modification.
4.9 Alkyl Halide Modification.
4.10 Aldehyde Modification.
4.13 Quinone Methides.
5. Thermal Modification of Wood.
5.2 Process Variables.
5.3 Chemical Changes in Wood due to Thermal Modification.
5.4 Physical Changes in Wood due to Thermal Modification.
5.5 Biological Properties of Thermally Modified Wood.
5.6 Compressed Wood.
5.7 Oil Heat-treatments.
6. Surface Modification.
6.2 Surface Chemical Modification for UV Stability.
6.3 Modification to Render the Wood Surface Hydrophobic.
6.4 Surface Chemical Modification for Bonding.
6.5 Enzymatic Modification.
6.6 Corona or Plasma Discharge.
7. Impregnation Modification.
7.2 Resin Treatments.
7.3 Impregnations using Silicon-containing Compounds.
7.4 Other Inorganic Cell Wall Precipitation Treatments.
7.5 Cell Wall Impregnation with Monomers.
7.6 Cell Wall Impregnation with Polymers.
8. Commercialization of Wood Modification.
8.2 Thermal Modification.
8.3 Oil Heat Modification/Treatments.
8.5 Impregnation Modification.
9. Wood Modification: Environmental Considerations and Future Developments.
9.2 Principles of the Determination of Environmental Impact.
9.3 Methods of Determining Environmental Impacts.
9.4 The Environmental Impact of Wood Modification.
9.5 Industrial Ecology and Wood Modification.
9.6 The Future of Wood Modification.