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Wood Modification: Chemical, Thermal and Other Processes

ISBN: 978-0-470-02173-6
260 pages
February 2007
Wood Modification: Chemical, Thermal and Other Processes (047002173X) cover image
This book is exclusively concerned with wood modification, although many of these processes are generic and can be applied to other lignocellulosic materials. There have been many rapid developments in wood modification over the past decade and, in particular, there has been considerable progress made in the commercialisation of technologies. Topics covered include:
  • The use of timber in the 21st century
  • Modifying the properties of wood
  • Chemical modification of wood: Acetic Anhydride Modification and reaction with other chemicals
  • Thermal modification of wood
  • Surface modification
  • Impregnation modification
  • Commercialisation of wood modification
  • Environmental consideration and future developments

This is the first time that a book has covered all wood modification technologies in one text. Although the book covers the main research developments in wood modification, it also puts wood modification into context and additionally deals with aspects of commercialisation and environmental impact.

This book is very timely, because wood modification is undergoing huge developments at the present time, driven in part by environmental concerns regarding the use of wood treated with certain preservatives. There has been considerable commercial interest shown in wood modification over the past decade, with products based upon thermal modification, and furfurylation now being actively being marketed. The next few years will see the commercialisation of acetylation and impregnation modification. This is a new industry, but one that has enormous potential.

This book will prove useful to all those with an interest in wood modification including researchers, technologists and professionals working in wood science and timber engineering, wood preservation, and well as professionals in the paper and pulp industries, and those with an interest in the development of renewable materials.

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Foreword.

Series Preface.

Preface.

List of Abbreviations.

1. The Use of Timber in the Twenty-first Century

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Nonrenewables: a Finite and Exhaustible Resource.

1.3 Renewable Materials.

1.4 The Global Timber Resource.

1.5 Timber Production.

1.6 Wood Preservation.

1.7 Preservative-treated Wood and Legislation.

1.8 Competition from Nonrenewable Materials.

1.9 The Need for Wood Modification.

1.10 Conclusions.

2. Modifying the Properties of Wood.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Wood Properties and Wood Modification.

2.3 Wood Modification Methods.

2.4 The Cell Wall of Wood.

2.5 The Chemical Constituents of Wood.

2.6 The Wood–Water Relationship.

2.7 The Mechanical Properties of Modified Wood.

2.8 Modified Wood and Biological Degradation.

2.9 Wood and Weathering.

2.10 Proof of Bonding.

2.11 Conclusions.

3. Chemical Modification of Wood (I): Acetic Anhydride Modification.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Reaction Protocols.

3.3 Cell Wall Reactivity.

3.4 Analysis of Anhydride-modified Wood.

3.5 Dimensional Stability.

3.6 Mechanical Properties.

3.7 Microbiological Degradation.

3.8 Biological Degradation by Insects and Marine Organisms.

3.9 Moisture Relationships of Anhydride-modified Wood.

3.10 Composites Utilizing Acetic Anhydride Modified Wood.

3.11 Conclusions.

4. Chemical Modification of Wood (II): Reaction with Other Chemicals.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Reaction of Wood with Other Noncyclic Anhydrides.

4.3 Reaction of Wood with Cyclic Anhydrides.

4.4 Acetylation Using Ketene Gas.

4.5 Carboxylic Acid Modification.

4.6 Acid Chloride Modification.

4.7 Isocyanate Modification.

4.8 Epoxide Modification.

4.9 Alkyl Halide Modification.

4.10 Aldehyde Modification.

4.11 Cyanoethylation.

4.12 Beta-Propiolactone.

4.13 Quinone Methides.

4.14 Conclusions.

5. Thermal Modification of Wood.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Process Variables.

5.3 Chemical Changes in Wood due to Thermal Modification.

5.4 Physical Changes in Wood due to Thermal Modification.

5.5 Biological Properties of Thermally Modified Wood.

5.6 Compressed Wood.

5.7 Oil Heat-treatments.

5.8 Conclusions.

6. Surface Modification.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Surface Chemical Modification for UV Stability.

6.3 Modification to Render the Wood Surface Hydrophobic.

6.4 Surface Chemical Modification for Bonding.

6.5 Enzymatic Modification.

6.6 Corona or Plasma Discharge.

6.7 Conclusions.

7. Impregnation Modification.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Resin Treatments.

7.3 Impregnations using Silicon-containing Compounds.

7.4 Other Inorganic Cell Wall Precipitation Treatments.

7.5 Cell Wall Impregnation with Monomers.

7.6 Cell Wall Impregnation with Polymers.

7.7 Conclusions.

8. Commercialization of Wood Modification.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Thermal Modification.

8.3 Oil Heat Modification/Treatments.

8.4 Acetylation.

8.5 Impregnation Modification.

8.6 Conclusions.

9. Wood Modification: Environmental Considerations and Future Developments.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Principles of the Determination of Environmental Impact.

9.3 Methods of Determining Environmental Impacts.

9.4 The Environmental Impact of Wood Modification.

9.5 Industrial Ecology and Wood Modification.

9.6 The Future of Wood Modification.

References.

Index.

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Dr Callum Hill, University of Wales Bangor, UK, internationally-renowned expert on wood modificati
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