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3D Videocommunication: Algorithms, concepts and real-time systems in human centred communication

Oliver Schreer (Editor), Peter Kauff (Editor), Thomas Sikora (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-02271-9
364 pages
September 2005
3D Videocommunication: Algorithms, concepts and real-time systems in human centred communication (047002271X) cover image

Description

The migration of immersive media towards telecommunication applications is advancing rapidly.  Impressive progress in the field of media compression, media representation, and the larger and ever increasing bandwidth available to the customer, will foster the introduction of these services in the future. One of the key components for the envisioned applications is the development from two-dimensional towards three-dimensional audio-visual communications.

With contributions from key experts in the field, 3D Videocommunication:

  • provides a complete overview of existing systems and technologies in 3D video communications and provides guidance on future trends and research;
  • considers all aspects of the 3D videocommunication processing chain including video coding, signal processing and computer graphics;
  • focuses on the current state-of-the-art and highlights the directions in which the technology is likely to move;
  • discusses in detail the relevance of 3D videocommunication for telepresence systems and immersive media; and
  • provides an exhaustive bibliography for further reading.

Researchers and students interested in the field of 3D audio-visual communications will find 3D Videocommunication a valuable resource, covering a broad overview of the current state-of-the-art. Practical engineers from industry will also find it a useful tool in envisioning and building innovative applications.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Symbols xix

Abbreviations xxi

Introduction 1
Oliver Schreer, Peter Kauff and Thomas Sikora

Section I Applications of 3D Videocommunication 5

1 History of Telepresence 7
Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn

1.1 Introduction 7

1.2 The Art of Immersion: Barker’s Panoramas 10

1.3 Cinerama and Sensorama 11

1.4 Virtual Environments 14

1.5 Teleoperation and Telerobotics 16

1.6 Telecommunications 18

1.7 Conclusion 19

References 20

2 3D TV Broadcasting 23
Christoph Fehn

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 History of 3D TV Research 24

2.3 A Modern Approach to 3D TV 26

2.3.1 A Comparison with a Stereoscopic Video Chain 28

2.4 Stereoscopic View Synthesis 29

2.4.1 3D Image Warping 29

2.4.2 A ‘Virtual’ Stereo Camera 30

2.4.3 The Disocclusion Problem 32

2.5 Coding of 3D Imagery 34

2.5.1 Human Factor Experiments 35

2.6 Conclusions 36

Acknowledgements 37

References 37

3 3D in Content Creation and Post-production 39
Oliver Grau

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Current Techniques for Integrating Real and Virtual Scene Content 41

3.3 Generation of 3D Models of Dynamic Scenes 44

3.4 Implementation of a Bidirectional Interface Between Real and Virtual Scenes 46

3.4.1 Head Tracking 49

3.4.2 View-dependent Rendering 50

3.4.3 Mask Generation 50

3.4.4 Texturing 51

3.4.5 Collision Detection 52

3.5 Conclusions 52

References 52

4 Free Viewpoint Systems 55
Masayuki Tanimoto

4.1 General Overview of Free Viewpoint Systems 55

4.2 Image Domain System 57

4.2.1 EyeVision 57

4.2.2 3D-TV 58

4.2.3 Free Viewpoint Play 59

4.3 Ray-space System 59

4.3.1 FTV (Free Viewpoint TV) 59

4.3.2 Bird’s-eye View System 60

4.3.3 Light Field Video Camera System 62

4.4 Surface Light Field System 64

4.5 Model-based System 65

4.5.1 3D Room 65

4.5.2 3D Video 66

4.5.3 Multi-texturing 67

4.6 Integral Photography System 68

4.6.1 NHK System 68

4.6.2 1D-II 3D Display System 70

4.7 Summary 70

References 71

5 Immersive Videoconferencing 75
Peter Kauff and Oliver Schreer

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 The Meaning of Telepresence in Videoconferencing 76

5.3 Multi-party Communication Using the Shared Table Concept 79

5.4 Experimental Systems for Immersive Videoconferencing 83

5.5 Perspective and Trends 87

Acknowledgements 88

References 88

Section II 3D Data Representation and Processing 91

6 Fundamentals of Multiple-view Geometry 93
Spela Ivekovic, Andrea Fusiello and Emanuele Trucco

6.1 Introduction 93

6.2 Pinhole Camera Geometry 94

6.3 Two-view Geometry 96

6.3.1 Introduction 96

6.3.2 Epipolar Geometry 97

6.3.3 Rectification 102

6.3.4 3D Reconstruction 104

6.4 N-view Geometry 106

6.4.1 Trifocal Geometry 106

6.4.2 The Trifocal Tensor 108

6.4.3 Multiple-view Constraints 109

6.4.4 Uncalibrated Reconstruction from N views 110

6.4.5 Autocalibration 111

6.5 Summary 112

References 112

7 Stereo Analysis 115
Nicole Atzpadin and Jane Mulligan

7.1 Stereo Analysis Using Two Cameras 115

7.1.1 Standard Area-based Stereo Analysis 117

7.1.2 Fast Real-time Approaches 120

7.1.3 Post-processing 123

7.2 Disparity From Three or More Cameras 125

7.2.1 Two-camera versus Three-camera Disparity 127

7.2.2 Correspondence Search with Three Views 128

7.2.3 Post-processing 129

7.3 Conclusion 130

References 130

8 Reconstruction of Volumetric 3D Models 133
Peter Eisert

8.1 Introduction 133

8.2 Shape-from-Silhouette 135

8.2.1 Rendering of Volumetric Models 136

8.2.2 Octree Representation of Voxel Volumes 137

8.2.3 Camera Calibration from Silhouettes 139

8.3 Space-carving 140

8.4 Epipolar Image Analysis 143

8.4.1 Horizontal Camera Motion 143

8.4.2 Image Cube Trajectory Analysis 145

8.5 Conclusions 148

References 148

9 View Synthesis and Rendering Methods 151
Reinhard Koch and Jan-Friso Evers-Senne

9.1 The Plenoptic Function 152

9.1.1 Sampling the Plenoptic Function 152

9.1.2 Recording of the Plenoptic Samples 153

9.2 Categorization of Image-based View Synthesis Methods 154

9.2.1 Parallax Effects in View Rendering 154

9.2.2 Taxonomy of IBR Systems 156

9.3 Rendering Without Geometry 158

9.3.1 The Aspen Movie-Map 158

9.3.2 Quicktime VR 158

9.3.3 Central Perspective Panoramas 159

9.3.4 Manifold Mosaicing 159

9.3.5 Concentric Mosaics 161

9.3.6 Cross-slit Panoramas 162

9.3.7 Light Field Rendering 162

9.3.8 Lumigraph 163

9.3.9 Ray Space 164

9.3.10 Related Techniques 164

9.4 Rendering with Geometry Compensation 165

9.4.1 Disparity-based Interpolation 165

9.4.2 Image Transfer Methods 166

9.4.3 Depth-based Extrapolation 167

9.4.4 Layered Depth Images 168

9.5 Rendering from Approximate Geometry 169

9.5.1 Planar Scene Approximation 169

9.5.2 View-dependent Geometry and Texture 169

9.6 Recent Trends in Dynamic IBR 170

References 172

10 3D Audio Capture and Analysis 175
Markus Schwab and Peter Noll

10.1 Introduction 175

10.2 Acoustic Echo Control 176

10.2.1 Single-channel Echo Control 177

10.2.2 Multi-channel Echo Control 179

10.3 Sensor Placement 181

10.4 Acoustic Source Localization 182

10.4.1 Introduction 182

10.4.2 Real-time System and Results 183

10.5 Speech Enhancement 185

10.5.1 Multi-channel Speech Enhancement 186

10.5.2 Single-channel Noise Reduction 187

10.6 Conclusions 190

References 191

11 Coding and Standardization 193
Aljoscha Smolic and Thomas Sikora

11.1 Introduction 193

11.2 Basic Strategies for Coding Images and Video 194

11.2.1 Predictive Coding of Images 194

11.2.2 Transform Domain Coding of Images and Video 195

11.2.3 Predictive Coding of Video 198

11.2.4 Hybrid MC/DCT Coding for Video Sequences 199

11.2.5 Content-based Video Coding 201

11.3 Coding Standards 202

11.3.1 JPEG and JPEG 2000 202

11.3.2 Video Coding Standards 202

11.4 MPEG-4 — an Overview 204

11.4.1 MPEG-4 Systems 205

11.4.2 BIFS 205

11.4.3 Natural Video 206

11.4.4 Natural Audio 207

11.4.5 SNHC 208

11.4.6 AFX 209

11.5 The MPEG 3DAV Activity 210

11.5.1 Omnidirectional Video 210

11.5.2 Free-viewpoint Video 212

11.6 Conclusion 214

References 214

Section III 3D Reproduction 217

12 Human Factors of 3D Displays 219
Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn, Pieter J.H. Seuntiëns and Lydia M.J. Meesters

12.1 Introduction 219

12.2 Human Depth Perception 220

12.2.1 Binocular Disparity and Stereopsis 220

12.2.2 Accommodation and Vergence 222

12.2.3 Asymmetrical Binocular Combination 223

12.2.4 Individual Differences 224

12.3 Principles of Stereoscopic Image Production and Display 225

12.4 Sources of Visual Discomfort in Viewing Stereoscopic Displays 226

12.4.1 Keystone Distortion and Depth Plane Curvature 227

12.4.2 Magnification and Miniaturization Effects 228

12.4.3 Shear Distortion 229

12.4.4 Cross-talk 229

12.4.5 Picket Fence Effect and Image Flipping 230

12.5 Understanding Stereoscopic Image Quality 230

References 231

13 3D Displays 235
Siegmund Pastoor

13.1 Introduction 235

13.2 Spatial Vision 236

13.3 Taxonomy of 3D Displays 237

13.4 Aided-viewing 3D Display Technologies 238

13.4.1 Colour-multiplexed (Anaglyph) Displays 238

13.4.2 Polarization-multiplexed Displays 239

13.4.3 Time-multiplexed Displays 239

13.4.4 Location-multiplexed Displays 240

13.5 Free-viewing 3D Display Technologies 242

13.5.1 Electroholography 242

13.5.2 Volumetric Displays 243

13.5.3 Direction-multiplexed Displays 244

13.6 Conclusions 258

References 258

14 Mixed Reality Displays 261
Siegmund Pastoor and Christos Conomis

14.1 Introduction 261

14.2 Challenges for MR Technologies 263

14.3 Human Spatial Vision and MR Displays 264

14.4 Visual Integration of Natural and Synthetic Worlds 265

14.4.1 Free-form Surface-prism HMD 265

14.4.2 Waveguide Holographic HMD 266

14.4.3 Virtual Retinal Display 267

14.4.4 Variable-accommodation HMD 267

14.4.5 Occlusion Handling HMD 268

14.4.6 Video See-through HMD 269

14.4.7 Head-mounted Projective Display 269

14.4.8 Towards Free-viewing MR Displays 270

14.5 Examples of Desktop and Hand-held MR Systems 273

14.5.1 Hybrid 2D/3D Desktop MR System with Multimodal Interaction 273

14.5.2 Mobile MR Display with Markerless Video-based Tracking 275

14.6 Conclusions 278

References 279

15 Spatialized Audio and 3D Audio Rendering 281
Thomas Sporer and Sandra Brix

15.1 Introduction 281

15.2 Basics of Spatial Audio Perception 281

15.2.1 Perception of Direction 282

15.2.2 Perception of Distance 283

15.2.3 The Cocktail Party Effect 283

15.2.4 Final Remarks 284

15.3 Spatial Sound Reproduction 284

15.3.1 Discrete Multi-channel Loudspeaker Reproduction 284

15.3.2 Binaural Reproduction 287

15.3.3 Multi-object Audio Reproduction 287

15.4 Audiovisual Coherence 291

15.5 Applications 293

15.6 Summary and Outlook 293

References 293

Section IV 3D Data Sensors 297

16 Sensor-based Depth Capturing 299
João G.M. Gonçalves and Vítor Sequeira

16.1 Introduction 299

16.2 Triangulation-based Sensors 301

16.3 Time-of-flight-based Sensors 303

16.3.1 Pulsed Wave 304

16.3.2 Continuous-wave-based Sensors 304

16.3.3 Summary 308

16.4 Focal Plane Arrays 308

16.5 Other Methods 309

16.6 Application Examples 309

16.7 The Way Ahead 311

16.8 Summary 311

References 312

17 Tracking and User Interface for Mixed Reality 315
Yousri Abdeljaoued, David Marimon i Sanjuan, and Touradj Ebrahimi

17.1 Introduction 315

17.2 Tracking 316

17.2.1 Mechanical Tracking 317

17.2.2 Acoustic Tracking 317

17.2.3 Inertial Tracking 318

17.2.4 Magnetic Tracking 318

17.2.5 Optical Tracking 320

17.2.6 Video-based Tracking 320

17.2.7 Hybrid Tracking 323

17.3 User Interface 324

17.3.1 Tangible User Interfaces 324

17.3.2 Gesture-based Interfaces 325

17.4 Applications 328

17.4.1 Mobile Applications 328

17.4.2 Collaborative Applications 329

17.4.3 Industrial Applications 329

17.5 Conclusions 331

References 331

Index 335

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Author Information

Dr Oliver Schreer, Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, & TU Berlin, Germany Oliver Schreer is Adjunct Professor at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University Berlin. He lectures on Image Processing in Videocommunications  and is a regular guest editor for the IEEE Transactions on Circuits, Systems and Video Technology.

Dr Peter Kauff, Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Berlin, Germany
Peter Kauff is the head of the “Immersive Media & 3D Video” Group at Heinrich-Hertz-Institute (HHI), Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Berlin. He has been involved in numerous German and European projects related to digital HDTV signal processing and coding, interactive MPEG-4-based services, and advanced 3D video processing for immersive tele-presence and immersive media.

Professor Dr Thomas Sikora, Head of the Communication Systems Group, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin
As the chairman of the ISO-MPEG video group (Moving Picture Experts Group), Dr Sikora was responsible for the development and standardization of the MPEG video coding algorithms. He frequently works as an industry consultant on issues related to interactive digital video. He is an appointed member of the Supervisory board of a number of German companies and international research organizations. He is an Associate Editor for IEEE Signal Processing Magazine and the EURASIP Signal Processing: Image Communication journal and currently serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology.

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