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Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants

ISBN: 978-0-470-02578-9
316 pages
July 2007
Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants (0470025786) cover image
This book covers all aspects of bioavailability, as related to environmental contaminants. After a discussion of the definition of bioavailability and its context, focus is placed on the role of risk assessment and bioavailability. Methods of analysis are then discussed including a range of atomic spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques for metal analysis and chromatographic approaches for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The occurrence, properties and eco-toxicity of POPs and metals in the soil/sediment environment are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the uptake of POPs and metals by plants (phytoextraction). Examples of POPs and metals in the environment are reviewed.

Methods to assess the bioavailability of POPs and metals in the environment are discussed. The particular approaches considered are:

  • non-exhaustive extraction techniques
  • single extraction techniques
  • sequential extraction techniques
  • use of cyclodextrin and surfactants
  • in-vitro gastrointestinal methods including physiological-based extraction test
  • the use of bioasssays including earthworms.

Finally, selected case studies highlight the importance of determining the bioavailability of POPs and metals.

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Series Preface.

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.

About the Author.

1. Contaminated Land and the Link to Human Health.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Soil Guideline Values.

1.3 Risk to Humans.

1.4 An Approach to Assess Contaminated Soils Relative to Soil Guideline Values.

References.

2. Sample Preparation and Analytical techniques for Elemental Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Sample Preparation for Elemental Analysis.

2.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

2.4 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

2.5 Inorganic Mass Spectroscopy.

2.6 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

2.7 Electrochemistry.

2.8 Hyphenated Techniques.

2.9 Comparison of Elemental Analytical Techniques.

2.10 Selected Resources on Elemental Analytical Techniques.

3. Sample Preparation and Analytical Techniques for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis of Environmental Contaminants.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Sample Preparation for Persistent Organic Pollutant Analysis.

3.3 Gas Chromatography.

3.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

3.5 Interfacing Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

3.6 Comparison of Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.

3.7 Selected Resources on Persistent Organic Pollutant Analytical Techniques.

4. Methods Used to Assess Bioavailability of Metals.

4.1 Non-Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for Metals.

4.2 Single Extraction Methods for Metals.

4.3 Sequential Extraction Techniques for Metals.

4.4 Earthworms.

4.5 Plant Uptake.

4.6 Certified Reference Materials.

References.

5. Methods Used to Assess bioavailability of Persistent Organic Pollutants.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Non-Exhaustive Extraction Techniques for POPs.

5.3 Earthworm Studies.

5.4 Plant Uptake.

References.

6. Methods Used to Assess oral Bioaccessibility.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Introduction to Human Physiology.

6.3 Considerations in the Design and Development of a Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method.

6.4 Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Metals.

Approaches to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Persistent Organic Pollutants.

6.6 Validity for Measuring Bioaccessibility.

References.

7. Selected Case Studies  on Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Mobility of Environmental Contaminants.

7.1 Bioavailability of Metals by Plants.

7.2 Bioaccessibility of Metals from Plants.

7.3 Bioavailability of POPs by Plants.

7.4 Bioaccessibility of POPs from Plants.

8. Recording of Information and Selected Resources.

8.1 Safety.

8.2 Recording of Information in the Laboratory.

8.3 Selected Resources.

Responses to Self-Assessment Questions.

Glossary of Terms.

SI Units and Physical Constants.

Periodic Table.

Index.

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John R. Dean took his first degree in chemistry at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), followed by an M.Sc. in Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation at Loughborough University of Technology, and finally a Ph.D. and D.I.C. in Physical Chemistry at the Imperial College of Science and Technology (University of London). He then spent two years as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Food Science Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Norwich, in Conjunction with the Polytechnic of the South West in Plymouth. His work there was focused on the development of directly coupled high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods for trace element speciation in foodstuffs. This was followed by a temporary lectureship in Inorganic Chemistry at Huddersfield Polytechinc. In 1988, he was appointed to a lectureship in Inorganic/Analytical chemistry at Newcastle Polytechnic (now Northumbria University). This was followed by promotion to Senior Lecturer (1990), Reader (1994), Principal Lecturer (1998) and Associate Dean (Research) (2004). He was also awarded a personal chair in 2004. In 1998, he was awarded a D.Sc. (University of London) in Analytical and Environmental Science and was the recipient of the 23rd Society for Analytical Chemistry (SAC) Silver Medal in 1995. He has published extensively in analytical and environmental science. He is an active member of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Analytical Division, having served as a member of the atomic spectroscopy group for 15 years (10 as Honorary Secretary), as well as a past Chairman (1997-1999). He has served on the Analytical Division Council for Three terms and is a former Vice-President (2002-2004), as well as a past-Chairman of the North-East Region of the RSC (2001-2003).
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  • Up-to-date information on the latest developments in bioavailability of environmental contaminants (persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals)
  • Covers global regulatory issues
  • Case studies to highlight the key aspects of analysis and bioavailability assessment
  • Self-assessment questions and worked examples
  • As part of the AnTS series, it also contains (series-style) supplementary information, including a glossary of terms, list of acronyms, bibliography and other information, plus provision of literature sources for further reading in individual chapters
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