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Aerosol Sampling: Science, Standards, Instrumentation and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-470-02725-7
636 pages
April 2007
Aerosol Sampling: Science, Standards, Instrumentation and Applications (0470027258) cover image
This book provides a comprehensive account of the important field of aerosol sampling as it is applied to the measurement of aerosols that are ubiquitous in occupational and living environments, both indoor and outdoor. It is written in four parts:

Part A contains 9 chapters that describe the current knowledge of the physical science that underpins the process of aerosol sampling.

Part B contains 4 chapters, which present the basis of standards for aerosols, including the link with human exposure by inhalation.

Part C contains 7 chapters that cover the development of practical aerosol sampling instrumentation, and how technical designs and methods have evolved over the years in order that aerosol sampling may be carried out in a manner matching the health-related and other criteria that have been proposed as parts of standards.

Finally Part D contains 6 chapters that describe how a wide range of aerosol sampling instruments have performed when they have been applied in the field in both occupational and ambient atmospheric environments, including how different instruments, nominally intended to measure the same aerosol fraction, compare when used side-by-side in the real world.

The book draws together all that is known about aerosol sampling, for the benefit of researchers and practitioners in occupational and environmental health and all other fields of science and engineering where aerosols are of interest.

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Part A: SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK FOR AEROSOL SAMPLING.

Chapter 1: Introduction.

Aerosols.

Particle size.

Elementary particle size statistics.

Aerosol measurement.

Sampler performance characteristics.

References.

Chapter 2: Fluid and aerosol mechanical background.

Fluid mechanical background.

Aerosol mechanics.

Chapter 3: Experimental methods in aerosol sampler studies.

Introduction.

Methodology for assessing sampler performance.

Scaling relationships for aerosol samplers.

Test facilities.

Test aerosol generation.

Reference methods.

Assessment of collected aerosol.

Aerosol sampler test protocols and procedures.

Chapter 4: The nature of air flow near aerosol samplers.

Introduction.

Line and point sink samplers.

Thin-walled slot and tube entries.

Thick-walled tubes.

Simple blunt samplers facing the wind.

Blunt samplers with orientations other than facing the wind.

More complex sampling systems.

Effects of freestream turbulence.

Chapter 5: Aspiration in moving air.

Introduction.

Thin-walled tube samplers.

Blunt samplers.

Chapter 6: Aspiration in calm and slowly-moving air.

Introduction.

Sampling in perfectly calm air.

Slowly moving air.

Chapter 7: Interferences to aerosol aspiration.

Introduction.

Interferences during aspiration.

Interferences after aspiration.

Chapter 8: Mechanisms for aerosol particle size selection after aspiration.

Introduction.

Elutriation.

Filtration by porous foam media.

Centrifugation.

Impaction.

Diffusion.

Other particle size-selective mechanisms.

Part B: STANDARDS FOR AEROSOLS.

Chapter 9: Framework for aerosol sampling in working and ambient environments.

Introduction.

Exposure to aerosols.

Framework for health-related aerosol sampling.

Non-health-related aerosol standards.

References.

Chapter 10: Particle size-selective criteria for coarse aerosol fractions.

Introduction.

Experimental studies of inhalability.

Particle size-selective criteria for the inhalable fraction.

Overview.

Chapter 11: Particle size-selective criteria for fine aerosol fractions.

Introduction.

Studies of regional deposition of inhaled aerosols.

Criteria for particle size-selective sampling for fine aerosol fractions.

Overview.

Chapter 12: Limit values.

Introduction.

Aerosol-related health effects.

The processes of standards setting.

Occupational exposure limits (OELs).

Ambient atmospheric aerosol limits.

Special cases.

Part C: AEROSOL SAMPLING INSTRUMENTATION AND APPLICATIONS.

Chapter 13: Historical milestones in practical aerosol sampling.

Introduction.

Occupational aerosol sampling.

Ambient atmospheric aerosol sampling.

Chapter 14: Sampling for coarse aerosol in workplaces.

Introduction.

Static (or area) samplers for coarse aerosol fractions.

Personal samplers for coarse aerosol fractions.

Analysis of performance data for inhalable aerosol samplers.

Passive aerosol samplers.

Chapter 15: Sampling for fine aerosol fractions in workplaces.

Introduction.

Samplers for the respirable fraction.

Samplers for the thoracic fraction.

Samplers for PM2.5.

Thoracic particle size selection for fibrous aerosols.

Sampling for very fine aerosols.

Simultaneous sampling for more than one aerosol fraction.

Chapter 16: Sampling probes for stack sampling.

Introduction.

Basic considerations.

Stack sampling methods.

Sampling probes for stack sampling.

Sampling for determining particle size distribution in stacks.

Direct-reading stack-monitoring instruments.

Chapter 17: Sampling for aerosols in the ambient atmosphere.

Introduction.

Sampling for coarse 'nuisance' aerosols.

Sampling for 'black smoke'.

Sampling for total suspended particulate in the ambient atmosphere.

Sampling for fine aerosol fractions in the ambient atmosphere.

Meteorological sampling.

Chapter 18: Sampling for the determination of particle size distribution.

Introduction.

Rationale.

Aerosol spectrometers.

Cascade impactors.

Other spectrometers.

Particle size distribution analysis by microscopy.

Chapter 19: Sampling for bioaerosols.

Introduction.

Standards for bioaerosols.

Technical issues for bioaerosol sampling.

Early bioaerosol sampling.

Criteria for bioaerosol sampling.

Inertial samplers.

Centrifugal samplers.

'Total' and inhalable bioaerosol.

Other samplers.

Chapter 20: Direct reading aerosol sampling instruments.

Introduction.

Optical aerosol-measuring instruments.

Electrical particle measurement.

Condensation nuclei/particle counters.

Mechanical aerosol mass measurement.

Nuclear mass detectors.

Surface area monitoring.

Analytical chemical methods.

Bioaerosol monitoring.

PART D: AEROSOL SAMPLER APPLICATIONS AND FIELD STUDIES.

Chapter 21: Pumps and paraphernalia.

Introduction.

Air moving systems.

Flowrate.

Collection media.

Analysis of collected samples.

Chapter 22: Field studies of aerosol samplers in workplaces.

Introduction.

Personal and static (or area) sampling.

Relationship between 'total' and inhalable aerosol.

Converting particle counts to particle mass.

Field experience with samplers for respirable aerosol.

Classification of workplace aerosols.

Diesel particulate matter.

The future of workplace aerosol measurement.

Chapter 23: Field studies of aerosol samplers in the ambient atmosphere.

Introduction.

'Nuisance' dust.

Total suspended particulate (TSP) and black smoke (BS).

Black smoke and particle size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5).

Transition to particle size-selective sampling.

PM10.

PM2.5.

Personal exposures to PM10 and PM2.5.

Classification of ambient atmospheric aerosols.

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Professor Vincent, Professor Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan

Professor Vincent holds a Ph.D. and a D.Sc. from the University of Durham, UK, the latter awarded in 1991 in consideration of "...work of high distinction constituting a substantial and original contribution to science." He is widely experienced in the occupational and environmental health sciences. He has worked in industry, in non-academic research institutions, and in three universities (Strathclyde University, University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan). His work over the past 30 years has included studies in aerosol science and fluid mechanics and their application to the atmospheric transport of pollutants, emission control from large-scale industrial processes, exposure assessment and control of airborne pollutants in environmental and occupational settings, aerosol sampling and measurement, inhalation toxicology and pharmacokinetics, occupational exposure standards setting, and international occupational health policy. In these areas he has published over 200 works. He is a past-president of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, was until recently chair of the Air Sampling Procedures Committee of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, and was editor-in-chief of the Journal of Aerosol Science from 1988 to 1999 (where he is now an honorary (lifetime) member of the Editorial Board.

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"…this book may help in the rapid access to data and references. It is therefore complementary to the great books and reviews…" (International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, October 2007)
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