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Arsenic: Environmental Chemistry, Health Threats and Waste Treatment

ISBN: 978-0-470-02758-5
588 pages
April 2009
Arsenic: Environmental Chemistry, Health Threats and Waste Treatment (0470027584) cover image
This book presents an overview of the chemistry, geology, toxicology and environmental impacts of arsenic, presenting information on relatively common arsenic minerals and their key properties. In addition, it includes discussions on the environmental impacts of the release of arsenic from mining and coal combustion. 

Although the environmental regulations of different nations vary and change over time, prominent International, North American, and European guidelines and regulations on arsenic will be reviewed.

  • Includes information on recent environmental catastrophes (e.g. Bangladesh and China)
  • A thorough discussion of the arsenic cycle, including the cosmological origin of arsenic
  • Includes Appendices providing extensive glossary and measurement conversion tables
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List of Contributors.

Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

1.0. Introduction (Kevin R. Henke).

Abstract.

1.1 Arsenic Origin, Chemistry, and Use.

1.2 Arsenic Environmental Impacts.

1.3 Arsenic Toxicity.

1.4 Arsenic Treatment and Remediation.

1.5 References.

2.0. Arsenic Chemistry (Kevin R. Henke and Aaron Hutchison).

Abstract.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Atomic Structure and Isotopes of Arsenic.

2.3 Arsenic Valence State and Bonding.

2.4 Chemistry of Arsenic Solids.

2.5 Introduction to Arsenic Oxidation and Reduction.

2.6 Introduction to Arsenic Methylation and Demethylation.

2.7 Arsenic in water.

2.8 Chemistry of Gaseous Arsenic Emissions.

2.9 References.

3.0. Arsenic in Natural Environments (Kevin R. Henke).

Abstract.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Nucleosynthesis: The Origin of Arsenic.

3.3 Arsenic in the Universe as a Whole.

3.4 Arsenic Chemistry of the Solar System.

3.5 Arsenic in the Bulk Earth, Crusts, and Interior.

3.6 Arsenic in Hydrothermal and Geothermal Fluids and their Deposits.

3.7 Oxidation of Arsenic-Bearing Sulfides in Geologic Materials and Mining Wastes.

3.8 Interactions between Arsenic and Natural Organic Matter (NOM).

3.9 Sorption and Coprecipitation of Arsenic with Iron and Other (Oxy)(hydr)oxides.

3.10 Arsenate (As(V)) Precipitation.

3.11 Reductive Dissolution of Iron and Manganese (Oxy)(hydr)oxides.

3.12 Arsenic and Sulfide at < 50oC.

3.13 Arsenic and its Chemistry in Mined Materials.

3.14 Marine Waters and Sediments.

3.15 Estuaries.

3.16 Rivers and Other Streams.

3.17 Lakes.

3.18 Wetlands.

3.19 Groundwater.

3.20 Glacial Ice and Related Sediments.

3.21 Arsenic in Air and Wind-blown Sediments.

3.22 Petroleum.

3.23 Soils.

3.24 Sedimentary Rocks.

3.25 Metamorphic Rocks.

3.26 References.

4.0. Toxicology and Epidemiology of Arsenic and its Compounds (Michael F. Hughes, David J. Thomas, and Elaina M. Kenyon).

Abstract.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Arsenic.

4.3 Exposure to Arsenic.

4.4 Arsenic Disposition and Biotransformation in Mammals.

4.5 Systemic Clearance of Arsenic and Binding to Blood Components.

4.6 Tissue Distribution.

4.7 Placental Transfer and Distribution in the Fetus.

4.8 Arsenic Biotransformation.

4.9 Arsenic Excretion.

4.10 Effects of Arsenic Exposure.

4.11. Cardiovascular.

4.12. Endocrine.

4.13 Hepatic.

4.14 Neurological.

4.15 Skin.

4.16 Developmental.

4.17 Other Organ Systems.

4.18 Cancer.

4.19 Animal Models for Arsenic-induced Cancer.

4.20 Mechanism of Action.

4.21 Regulation of Arsenic.

4.22 References.

5.0. Arsenic in Human History and Modern Societies (Kevin R. Henke and David A. Atwood).

Abstract.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2. Early Recognition and Uses of Arsenic by Humans.

5.3 Alchemy, Development of Methods to Recover Elemental Arsenic, and the Synthesis of Arsenic Compounds.

5.4 Applications with Arsenic.

5.5 Increasing Health, Safety, and Environmental Concerns.

5.6 Arsenic in Crime.

5.7 Poisoning Controversies: Napoleon Bonaparte.

5.8 Arsenic in Prospecting, Mining, and Markets.

5.9 Arsenic in Coal and Oil Shale Utilization and their Byproducts.

5.10 References.

6.0. Major Occurrences of Elevated Arsenic in Groundwater and Other Natural Waters (Abhijit Mukherjee, Alan E. Fryar, and Bethany M. O’Shea).

Abstract.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Arsenic Speciation and Mobility in Natural Waters.

6.3 Immobilization of Arsenic in Hydrologic Systems.

6.4 Mobilization of Arsenic in Water.

6.5 Natural Occurrences of Elevated Arsenic around the World.

6.6 References.

7.0. Waste Treatment and Remediation Technologies for Arsenic (Kevin R. Henke).

Abstract.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Treatment Technologies for Arsenic in Water.

7.3 Treatment Technologies for Arsenic in Solids.

7.4 Treatment Technologies for Arsenic in Gases.

7.5 References.

Appendices.

A: Common Physical and Chemical Constants and Conversions for Units of Measure.

B: Glossary of Terms.

B.1 Introduction.

B.2 Glossary.

C: Arsenic Thermodynamic Data.

C.1 Introduction.

C.2 Modeling Applications with Thermodynamic Data.

C.3 Thermodynamic Data.

D: Locations of Significant Arsenic Contamination.

E: Regulation of Arsenic: A Brief Survey and Bibliography.

E.1 Introduction.

E.2 Regulation of Arsenic in Water.

E.3 Regulation of Arsenic in Solid and Liquid Wastes.

E.4 Sediment and Soil Guidelines and Standards for Arsenic.

E.5 Regulation of Arsenic in Food and Drugs.

E.6 Regulation of Arsenic in Air.

E.7 Other References.

Subject Index.

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