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Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-02763-9
334 pages
February 2007, ©2007
Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering, 2nd Edition (0470027630) cover image

Description

The thoroughly revised and updated second edition of Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering features new standards, developments and applications. It addresses not only recent developments in UWB communication systems, but also related IEEE standards such as IEEE 802.15 wireless personal area network (WPAN).  Examples and problems are included in each chapter to aid understanding.

Enhanced with new chapters and several sections including Standardization, advanced topics in UWB Communications and more applications, this book is essential reading for senior undergraduates and postgraduate students interested in studying UWB.  The emphasis on UWB development for commercial consumer communications products means that any communication engineer or manager cannot afford to be without it!

New material included in the second edition:

  • Two new chapters covering new regulatory issues for UWB systems and new systems such as ad-hoc and sensor networks, MAC protocols and space-time coding for UWB systems
  • IEEE proposals for channel models and their specifications
  • Interference and coexistence of UWB with other systems
  • UWB antennas and arrays, and new types of antennas for UWB systems such as printed bow-tie antennas
  • Coverage of new companies working on UWB such as Artimi and UBISense
  • UWB potential for use in medicine, including cardiology, respiratory medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, emergency room and acute care, assistance for disabled people, and throat and vocals

Companion website features a solutions manual, Matlab programs and electronic versions of all figures.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

List of Figures xix

List of Tables xxix

Introduction 1

I.1 Ultra wideband overview 1

I.2 A note on terminology 2

I.3 Historical development of UWB 2

I.4 UWB regulation overview 3

I.4.1 Basic definitions and rules 4

I.5 Key benefits of UWB 5

I.6 UWB and Shannon’s theory 6

I.7 Challenges for UWB 7

I.8 Summary 7

1 Basic properties of UWB signals and systems 9

1.1 Introduction 9

1.2 Power spectral density 10

1.3 Pulse shape 11

1.4 Pulse trains 14

1.5 Spectral masks 16

1.6 Multipath 17

1.7 Penetration characteristics 20

1.8 Spatial and spectral capacities 20

1.9 Speed of data transmission 21

1.10 Cost 22

1.11 Size 22

1.12 Power consumption 23

1.13 Summary 23

2 Generation of UWB waveforms 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.1.1 Damped sine waves 26

2.2 Gaussian waveforms 28

2.3 Designing waveforms for specific spectral masks 31

2.3.1 Introduction 32

2.3.2 Multiband modulation 33

2.4 Practical constraints and effects of imperfections 39

2.5 Summary 40

3 Signal-processing techniques for UWB systems 43

3.1 The effects of a lossy medium on a UWB transmitted signal 43

3.2 Time domain analysis 46

3.2.1 Classification of signals 46

3.2.2 Some useful functions 48

3.2.3 Some useful operations 51

3.2.4 Classification of systems 54

3.2.5 Impulse response 57

3.2.6 Distortionless transmission 57

3.3 Frequency domain techniques 57

3.3.1 Fourier transforms 57

3.3.2 Frequency response approaches 58

3.3.3 Transfer function 60

3.3.4 Laplace transform 63

3.3.5 z-transform 64

3.3.6 The relationship between the Laplace transform, the Fourier transform, and the z-transform 67

3.4 UWB signal-processing issues and algorithms 68

3.5 Detection and amplification 71

3.6 Summary 72

4 UWB channel modeling 75

4.1 A simplified UWB multipath channel model 76

4.1.1 Number of resolvable multipath components 78

4.1.2 Multipath delay spread 78

4.1.3 Multipath intensity profile 79

4.1.4 Multipath amplitude-fading distribution 80

4.1.5 Multipath arrival times 81

4.2 Path loss model 83

4.2.1 Free space loss 83

4.2.2 Refraction 84

4.2.3 Reflection 84

4.2.4 Diffraction 85

4.2.5 Wave clutter 85

4.2.6 Aperture–medium coupling loss 85

4.2.7 Absorption 85

4.2.8 Example of free space path loss model 85

4.3 Two-ray UWB propagation model 87

4.3.1 Two-ray path loss 88

4.3.2 Two-ray path loss model 91

4.3.3 Impact of path loss frequency selectivity on UWB transmission 93

4.4 Frequency domain autoregressive model 96

4.4.1 Poles of the AR model 99

4.5 IEEE proposals for UWB channel models 100

4.5.1 An analytical description of the IEEE UWB indoor channel model 101

4.6 Summary 106

5 UWB communications 109

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 UWB modulation methods 110

5.2.1 PPM 111

5.2.2 BPM 112

5.3 Other modulation methods 113

5.3.1 OPM 115

5.3.2 PAM 115

5.3.3 OOK 116

5.3.4 Summary of UWB modulation methods 116

5.4 Pulse trains 116

5.4.1 Gaussian pulse train 117

5.4.2 PN channel coding 117

5.4.3 Time-hopping PPM UWB system 119

5.5 UWB transmitter 120

5.6 UWB receiver 121

5.6.1 Detection 122

5.6.2 Pulse integration 123

5.6.3 Tracking 123

5.6.4 Rake receivers 123

5.7 Multiple access techniques in UWB 123

5.7.1 Frequency division multiple access UWB 124

5.7.2 Time division multiple access 124

5.7.3 Code division multiple access 124

5.7.4 Orthogonal pulse multiple access system 124

5.8 Capacity of UWB systems 125

5.9 Comparison of UWB with other wideband communication systems 128

5.9.1 CDMA 130

5.9.2 Comparison of UWB with DSSS and FHSS 130

5.9.3 OFDM 133

5.10 Interference and coexistence of UWB with other systems 136

5.10.1 WLANs 137

5.10.2 Bluetooth 139

5.10.3 GPS 140

5.10.4 Cellular systems 141

5.10.5 Wi-Max 141

5.10.6 The effect of narrowband interference on UWB systems 143

5.11 Summary 146

6 Advanced UWB pulse generation 149

6.1 Hermite pulses 149

6.1.1 Hermite polynomials 150

6.1.2 Orthogonal modified Hermite pulses 151

6.1.3 Modulated and modified Hermite pulses 154

6.2 Orthogonal prolate spheroidal wave functions 156

6.2.1 Introduction 157

6.2.2 Fundamentals of PSWFs 158

6.2.3 PSWF pulse generator 161

6.3 Wavelet packets in UWB PSM 166

6.3.1 PSM system model 168

6.3.2 Receiver structure 169

6.4 Summary 170

7 UWB antennas and arrays 173

7.1 Antenna fundamentals 174

7.1.1 Maxwell’s equations for free space 174

7.1.2 Wavelength 176

7.1.3 Antenna duality 176

7.1.4 Impedance matching 176

7.1.5 Voltage standing wave ratio and reflected power 177

7.1.6 Antenna bandwidth 177

7.1.7 Directivity and gain 177

7.1.8 Antenna field regions 178

7.1.9 Antenna directional pattern 178

7.1.10 Beamwidth 180

7.2 Antenna radiation for UWB signals 180

7.2.1 Dispersion due to near-field effects 183

7.3 Suitability of conventional antennas for the UWB system 184

7.3.1 Resonant antennas 184

7.3.2 Nonresonant antennas 187

7.3.3 Difficulties with UWB antenna design 187

7.4 Impulse antennas 188

7.4.1 Conical antenna 188

7.4.2 Monopole antenna 189

7.4.3 D-dot probe antenna 190

7.4.4 TEM horn antenna 190

7.4.5 Small-size UWB antenna 191

7.4.6 Conclusion 192

7.5 Beamforming for UWB signals 192

7.5.1 Basic concepts 193

7.5.2 A simple delay-line transmitter wideband array 194

7.6 Radar UWB array systems 201

7.7 Summary 202

8 Position and location with UWB signals 205

8.1 Wireless positioning and location 205

8.1.1 Types of wireless positioning systems 206

8.1.2 Wireless distance measurement 206

8.1.3 Microwave positioning systems 207

8.2 GPS techniques 210

8.2.1 Differential GPS (DGPS) 211

8.2.2 GPS tracking modes 211

8.2.3 GPS error sources 212

8.3 Positioning techniques 213

8.3.1 Introduction 213

8.3.2 Network-based techniques 213

8.3.3 Handset-based techniques 218

8.3.4 Hybrid techniques 220

8.3.5 Other techniques 220

8.4 Time resolution issues 221

8.4.1 Narrowband systems 221

8.4.2 Wideband systems 221

8.4.3 Super-resolution techniques 222

8.4.4 UWB systems 225

8.5 UWB positioning and communications 227

8.5.1 Potential user scenarios 227

8.5.2 Potential applications 227

8.6 Summary 228

9 Applications using UWB systems 231

9.1 Military applications 231

9.1.1 Precision asset location system 232

9.2 Commercial applications 233

9.2.1 Time Domain 234

9.2.2 XtremeSpectrum 236

9.2.3 Intel Corporation 236

9.2.4 Motorola 237

9.2.5 Freescale 237

9.2.6 Communication Research Laboratory 238

9.2.7 General atomics 238

9.2.8 Wisair 239

9.2.9 Artimi 239

9.2.10 Ubisense 240

9.2.11 Home networking and home electronics 240

9.2.12 PAL system 242

9.3 UWB potentials in medicine 243

9.3.1 Fundamentals of medical UWB radar 246

9.3.2 UWB radar for remote monitoring of patient’s vital activities 246

9.3.3 UWB respiratory monitoring system 247

9.4 Summary 249

10 UWB communication standards 251

10.1 UWB standardization in wireless personal area networks 251

10.1.1 WPAN standardization overview 252

10.1.2 IEEE 802.15.3a 253

10.1.3 IEEE 802.15.4a 255

10.2 DS-UWB proposal 255

10.2.1 DS-UWB operating bands 256

10.2.2 Advantages of DS-UWB 258

10.3 MB-OFDM UWB proposal 258

10.3.1 Frequency band allocation 259

10.3.2 Channelization 260

10.3.3 Advantages of MB-OFDM UWB 261

10.4 A short comment on the term ‘impulse radio’ 261

10.5 Summary 262

11 Advanced topics in UWB communication systems 263

11.1 UWB ad-hoc networks 263

11.1.1 Introduction 263

11.1.2 Applications of an UWB ad-hoc network 264

11.1.3 Technologies involved in UWB ad-hoc networks 264

11.2 UWB sensor networks 267

11.3 Multiple inputs multiple outputs and space-time coding for UWB systems 270

11.4 Self-interference in high-data-rate UWB communications 271

11.5 Coexistence of DS-UWB with Wi-Max 275

11.5.1 Interference thresholds 276

11.5.2 UWB signal model 278

11.5.3 Interference model 279

11.5.4 Interference scenario 281

11.5.5 Some numerical results 281

11.5.6 Conclusion 282

11.6 Vehicular radars in the 22–29 GHz band 283

11.6.1 Environment sensing for vehicular radar 284

11.7 Summary 286

References 287

Index 297

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Author Information

Mohammad Ghavami is Reader at the Centre for Telecommunications Research, King's College London. From 1998 to 2000 he was a JSPS Postdoctoral fellow in Yokohama National University, Japan, and from 2000 to 2002 he was a researcher at the Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc. in Tokyo, Japan.

Lachlan Michael is based at Hattori Information Processing Laboratory, Sony, Inc. and was previously Associate Researcher at Sony Corporation, Tokyo.

Ryuji Kohno is Visiting Researcher at the Fundamental Research Lab, Sony CSL and a Professor at the Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan. He was previouslyDirector of the Advanced Telecommunication Laboratory, Sony Coroporation, Tokyo.

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Reviews

"Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering is a well-developed, introductory book on UWB technologies and applications, which is a strong resource for both beginners who seek to introduction to UWB principles and their applications, and for researchers who wish to better understand the application of UWB technologies to practical systems." (IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, September 2008)

"Well-developed, introductory book on UWB technologies and applications, which is a strong resource for both beginners who seek an introduction to UWB principles and their applications, and for researchers who wish to better understand the application of UWB technologies to practical systems." (IEEE Signal Magazine, September 2008)

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