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Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis: Theory and the ORAMA Computer Tool

ISBN: 978-0-470-02853-7
228 pages
January 2007
Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis: Theory and the ORAMA Computer Tool (047002853X) cover image


The first time that such a complete systematic analysis of the mathematical and numerical techniques related to the orthogonal methods has been given.

With the explosion of the wireless world, greater emphasis than ever before is being placed on the effective design of antennas. Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis outlines several procedures of orthogonal methods suitable for antenna array synthesis. The book presents a simple approach to the design of antenna arrays to enable the reader to use the classical Orthogonal Method for synthesis of linear arrays.

This theory-based book, which includes rapid, effective solutions to design problems for communications applications and broadcasting, is amply illustrated with real-world examples and case studies. Also included in the book is the ORAMA MS Windows-compatible computer tool, patented by Professor Sahalos and his team.

  • Provides comprehensive coverage of the basic principles of orthogonal methods including an analytical explanation of the orthogonal method (OM) and the orthogonal perturbation method (OP)
  • Gives rapid, cost-effective solutions to antenna design problems for communications applications and broadcasting
  • Illustrates all theory with practical applications gleaned from the author’s extensive experience in the field of orthogonal advanced methods for antennas

Providing a complete guide to the theory and applications of the Orthogonal Methods, this book is a must-read for antenna engineers and graduate students of electrical and computer engineering and physics.

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Table of Contents


1 Antennas and Antenna Arrays.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Antenna Array Factor.

1.3 Elements and Array Types.

1.4 Antenna Parameters and Indices.

1.5 Antenna Input Impedance.

1.6 Antenna Arrays Classification.

1.7 Array Factor Classification.


2 Arrays: Linear, Planar, 3D and Conformal.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Linear Arrays.

2.3 Uniform Linear Arrays.

2.4 Chebyshev Linear Arrays.

2.5 Linear Arrays from Sampling or Root Matching of Line Sources.

2.6 Planar Arrays.

2.7 3-D Arrays.

2.8 Conformal Arrays.


3 Pattern Synthesis for Arrays.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Uniform Linear Array Synthesis.

3.3 Chebyshev Array Synthesis.

3.4 Synthesis by Sampling or by Root Matching.

3.5 Synthesis by Fourier Transform.

3.6 The Woodward - Lawson (WL) Method.

3.7 Array Synthesis as an Optimization Problem.

3.8 Synthesis by Convolution of Linear, Planar and 3-D Arrays.


4 The Orthogonal Methods.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Synthesis of Non-uniformly Spaced Linear Arrays: The Matrix Inversion Method.

4.3 Synthesis of Non-uniformly Spaced Linear Arrays: The Orthogonal Method.

4.5 Quantized Excitation and Geometry Synthesis of a Linear Array: The Orthogonal Perturbation Method.

4.6 Synthesis of Non-uniformly Spaced Planar Arrays: The Orthogonal Method.

4.7 Synthesis of Non-uniformly Spaced 3-D Arrays: The Orthogonal Method.

4.8 Synthesis of Non-uniformly Spaced 3-D Arrays with Arbitrarily Oriented Dipoles: The Non-parallel Orthogonal Method.

4.9 Synthesis of Arrays of Wire Antennas: The MoM Orthogonal Method.

4.10 Synthesis of General Antenna Arrays: The Orthogonal Compensation Method.

4.11 Synthesis of Conformal Arrays: The Conformal Orthogonal Method.


5 The Orama Computer Tool (George S. Miaris and John N. Sahalos).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Description of the ORAMA Program.

5.3 Element Types.

5.4 Design Examples.

5.5 Conclusion.



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Author Information

Professor John N. Sahalos is a professional engineer and consultant to industry and Head of the Radio Communications  Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Greece. He is a member of the New York Academy of Science and the Technical Chamber of Greece. In 2002, he was appointed to serve a five-year term on the Board of Directors of the Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A. His research interests are in the areas of applied electromagnetics, antennas, high frequency methods, communications, microwaves and biomedical engineering.
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