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Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection: A Multimedia Teaching Guide

ISBN: 978-0-470-03088-2
220 pages
October 2006
Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection: A Multimedia Teaching Guide (0470030887) cover image

Description

The advent of complex intelligent structures and low-voltage electronic installations within buildings requires increasingly sophisticated lightning protections techniques. As a multimedia book, Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection is a unique, interactive self-teaching tool that provides an in-depth understanding of lightning protection.

Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection helps the reader to understand the propagation of waves within complex intelligent structures within buildings, and the operation of systems designed to protect these structures. It also comments on proper human behaviour during a lightning thunderstorm.

  • Accompanied by a web-based animation program http://www.wiley.com/go/horvath
  • Shows the fundamental processes of the lightning phenomenon, and helps the reader to understand the measures of protection against lightning damage.
  • Offers a new theory and calculation method to estimate the efficiency of lightning air termination systems, which helps to evaluate the residual risk of the lightning protection system.
  • Examines the propogation of waves and the associated protection of intelligent systems against lightning electromagnetic impulses.

This interactive teaching tool is designed for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in electrical engineering, construction, physics and meteorology. It will also provide a valuable resource for practitioners within electric power distribution, electronics, informatics & construction safety.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

PREFACE xi

INTRODUCTION 1

Guide to use the program 1

1. CLOUD, CYCLONE AND FRONTS 1-0 3

Development of a cloud 1-1 3

Growth of a thunderstorm cloud 1-5 4

Development of a cyclone 1-13 6

Warm and cold fronts 1-21 7

Distribution of thunderstorms 1-25 7

2. ELECTRIC CHARGES IN CLOUDS 2-0 9

Processes of charge separation 2-1 9

Charging process in the liquid phase 2-1 9

Charging process during freezing 2-8 10

Final distribution of charges 2-14 11

Static electric field 2-16 11

Relation to the ionosphere 2-17 12

3. DISCHARGE PROCESSES IN AIR 3-0 13

Photon processes 3-1 13

Excitation by photon 3-2 13

Ionisation and absorption 3-3 14

Recombination 3-4 14

Electron collisions 3-6 14

Excitation by electron 3-9 15

Ionisation by collision 3-10 15

Discharges 3-11 15

Electron avalanche 3-11 15

Streamer discharge 3-18 16

Klydonograph 3-22 17

Leader discharge 3-25 17

4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIGHTNING FLASH 4-0 19

Start on drops in the cloud 4-1 19

From leader to main stroke 4-5 20

Multiple stroke 4-13 21

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

Upward leader 4-16 22

The Boys-camera: Principle and construction 4-22 23

The Boys-camera: Operation 4-27 24

Boys-record of ideal lightning 4-30 24

Real Boys-records 4-36 25

5. PHYSICS OF THE LIGHTNING DISCHARGE 5-0 27

Properties of a downward leader 5-1 27

Condition of connecting leader 5-5 28

Striking process 5-11 29

Development of main stroke 5-13 29

Multiple and upward stroke 5-15 30

The current wave 5-19 30

Lightning parameters 5-24 31

Distribution functions 5-28 32

6. CURIOUS LIGHTNING PHENOMENA 6-0 35

Properties of ball lightning 6-1 35

Ball lightning-theories 6-7 37

Resonance theory 6-10 37

Quantum-theory 6-11 38

Theory of magnetic vortex 6-12 38

Photos of ball lightning 6-18 39

Beaded lightning 6-23 40

Stroke from clear sky 6-28 41

Discharge to the ionosphere 6-31 41

7. INDUCED VOLTAGE 7-0 43

Ampère’s law 7-1 43

Rectangular loop + infinite conductor 7-5 44

Rectangular loop + cut conductor 7-8 44

Reduction to basic components 7-10 44

Triangular loop 7-13 45

Polygonal loop 7-16 45

Induced voltage due to direct stroke 7-18 46

Induced current due to direct stroke 7-23 46

Induced voltage due to distant stroke 7-28 47

Induced current due to distant stroke 7-35 48

8. DYNAMIC FORCES DUE TO LIGHTNING 8-0 51

Parallel wires 8-1 51

Force due to lightning on a rod struck at the top 8-8 52

Force due to lightning on a horizontal wire 8-12 53

Force due to lightning on a metal plate 8-15 53

Force of leaded current at inversion of wire 8-18 54

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

Force of leaded current on a tube 8-20 54

Dynamic force on a console 8-22 54

Slit effect 8-27 55

Damage on tree 8-32 56

9. HEAT EFFECTS ON METAL OBJECTS 9-0 59

Heating a metal plate 9-1 59

Change of temperature in a metal plate 9-4 60

Equations of melting a metal plate 9-9 61

Crater and droplets 9-15 62

Melting a wire at contact spot 9-18 62

Melting a wire leading current 9-22 63

Probability of melting 9-30 64

10. LIGHTNING ATTACHMENT 10-0 67

Point of orientation 10-1 67

The striking distance 10-5 68

Distribution and density functions 10-7 68

The expected frequency of stroke 10-10 69

The principle of calculation 10-10 69

Collection space 10-17 70

11. COLLECTION SPACES OF STRUCTURES 11-0 73

The principle of collection space 11-1 73

Dividing the collection space 11-3 74

Two conductors 11-6 74

Lightning rod on tower 11-9 75

Air terminations of block-house 11-13 75

The collection space of one mesh 11-25 77

12. PROTECTIVE EFFECT ON FLAT ROOF 12-0 79

Air termination systems on blockhouse 12-1 79

Diagrams related to several air terminations 12-4 80

Application of rolling sphere method 12-8 81

13. PROTECTION OF INCLINED ROOF 13-0 83

Types of air termination systems 13-1 83

Attraction of roof and eaves 13-6 84

Effect of electrodes on eaves 13-11 85

Effect of electrodes on the edges 13-15 85

Attraction of unprotected edges 13-23 87

Stroke-free period 13-26 87

14. RESIDUAL RISK OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION 14-0 89

The flow diagram 14-1 89

Equivalent area of a structure 14-2 89

Cases of the point of strike 14-11 91

Cases of damaging stroke 14-18 92

Intercepted stroke 14-19 92

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

Striking the roof 14-23 93

Calculation of risk 14-27 94

Weighting the consequences 14-28 95

Resulting damage 14-38 97

Resulting frequency of weighted damage 14-40 97

Resulting risk 14-44 98

15. CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURES 15-0 101

Classes of structures 15-1 101

Height and surroundings 15-12 103

High surroundings 15-13 103

Increased danger of stroke 15-18 104

Classes according to height 15-26 106

Effect of the soil profile 15-27 106

The materials of roof 15-31 107

Further classifications 15-37 108

16. AIR TERMINATION SYSTEMS 16-0 111

Level of risk and protection 16-1 111

Construction methods 16-3 111

Protective angle 16-3 111

Rolling sphere 16-7 112

Mesh size 16-9 112

Degrees of Hungarian standard 16-12 113

Natural air termination 16-13 113

Simplified air termination 16-17 114

Data of higher degrees 16-19 114

Distance to the structure 16-21 115

Forms of air terminations 16-28 116

17. DOWN CONDUCTORS AND METAL OBJECTS 17-0 119

Down conductors 17-1 119

Calculation of current paths 17-1 119

Example of current path 17-9 120

Positioning along the perimeter 17-15 121

Degrees of down conductors 17-17 121

Forms of down conductors 17-22 122

Vertical metal structures 17-26 123

Dangerous loops 17-26 123

Bonding metal structures 17-30 124

Insulating spacers 17-34 124

Elevators 17-37 125

18. EARTHING OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM 18-0 127

Degrees of earthing 18-1 127

Natural earthing 18-2 127

Simple earthing systems 18-5 128

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

Earthing resistance 18-10 129

Normal and enhanced systems 18-17 130

Earthing by foundation 18-22 131

Soil resistivity 18-27 132

Measurement of earthing resistance 18-30 132

Impulse earthing 18-32 132

19. LIGHTNING ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPULSE 19-0 135

Conductive coupling 19-1 135

Inductive coupling 19-3 136

Capacitive coupling 19-5 136

Distribution of current 19-7 136

Arriving current along a single line 19-10 137

Arriving current along branching line 19-15 138

Faraday holes 19-20 139

Shielded entrance 19-25 139

Shielded cable 19-30 140

Circuit of lightning 19-32 141

20. GRADED SURGE-PROTECTION 20-0 143

Operation principles 20-1 143

Three stage with resistors 20-6 144

Influence of distance between stages 20-11 145

Propagation of waves 20-19 146

Waves on devices 20-27 147

21. SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES 21-0 149

Gas filled arrester 21-1 149

Arc blowing spark gap 21-5 150

Gliding spark gap 21-9 150

Encapsulated arrester 21-13 151

Characteristics of gaps 21-18 152

The varistor 21-20 152

Characteristics of varistor 21-29 153

Types of protection devices 21-33 154

22. INTERNAL LIGHTNING PROTECTION ZONES 22-0 157

Structure of zones 22-1 157

Standardised lightning parameters 22-5 158

Networks of information systems 22-6 158

Tray configuration 22-17 160

23. CONNECTION TO ELECTRIC POWER NETWORK 23-0 161

Striking the supply line 23-1 161

Striking the air termination 23-10 162

TT system 23-17 163

Outdoor kWh box 23-22 164

CHAPTERS and subsections Comment Page

24. PROTECTION OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES 24-0 167

Protection of personal computer 24-1 167

Protection of television 24-10 169

Relay station 24-16 170

25. LIGHTNING MEASUREMENT AND LOCALIZATION 25-0 171

Measuring of lightning current 25-1 171

Magnetic card 25-2 171

Magnetic link 25-5 172

Shunt resistor 25-9 172

Coil of Rogowski 25-13 173

Reflection of the current wave 25-18 174

Localising by direction finding 25-21 174

Localising by pulse arrival time 25-24 175

Lightning detection systems 25-28 175

26. THE MANKIND IN THE THUNDERSTORM 26-0 177

Danger in open air 26-1 177

Danger on or beside a tree 26-5 178

Step voltage 26-11 179

What to do outdoors? 26-14 179

Danger on a bicycle 26-18 180

Danger at a car 26-22 180

Danger at a truck 26-26 181

Danger in water 26-30 182

Danger in boats and vessels 26-34 182

REFERENCES 185

INDEX 189

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Author Information

Tibor Horvath is a Professor Emeritus at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. He has authored 17 books  on high voltage engineering, insulations, static electricity, measurements and testing & the history of electrotechnics, and over 120 journal articles and conference papers. He has served as president of the International Conference on Lightning Protection, and has designed lightning protection systems for many prestigious buildings including the Hungarian Parliament and the cathedral of Budapest.
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Reviews

"…would be used by students or as a resource for those who need to design and specify electrical protection equipment…and by anyone with an interest in lighting." (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, March/April 2007)
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Related Websites / Extra

Understanding Lightning and Lightning ProtectionAccess the web-based animation programme to accompany the text.
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