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Textbook

UMTS Networks and Beyond

ISBN: 978-0-470-03190-2
386 pages
March 2009, ©2008
UMTS Networks and Beyond (0470031905) cover image

Description

An all-encompassing coverage on UMTS Networks including an in-depth discussion of current work on UMTS evolution and 4G .

UMTS Networks and Beyond offers a comprehensive introduction to the networking aspects of UMTS and the networks coming after UMTS. The book is unique in that it systematically compares how a particular problem, e.g. obtaining connectivity, is solved in UMTS and how the same problem is solved in a Computer Network such as the Internet. It also highlights why the respective solutions are so different.

The first part of the book provides a detailed technical discussion of UMTS, including original vision, architecture, protocol stacks and overall functionality. It places UMTS in the context of its evolution of from GSM and its convergence with Computer Networks. The second part of the book discusses today’s vision of 4G, and introduces upcoming networking technologies. Emphasis is on LTE / SAE as successor of UMTS; UMB, WiMAX and NGN are also discussed. The book gives an overview of what these technologies are likely to offer, of their architectures, protocols and functionality. It also discusses their differences and similarities, and whether they will qualify as 4G.

Key Features:

  • Provides readers, particularly those with a background in IP-based networks, with a technical understanding of what UMTS does, how it works and how it is likely to evolve
  • Explains the differences in design between UMTS Networks and Computer Networks and discusses how these design divergences can be reconciled in the future
  • Shows how economic considerations shape the design of UMTS
  • Motivates why particular design choices are made in UMTS
  • Gives an in-depth introduction to LTE / SAE
  • Provides a detailed picture of the state of the art in 4G
  • Illustrates the theory with numerous tables and figures

This comprehensive textbook is essential reading for advanced students and lecturers in communications systems and networking. It is also of interest to engineers and researchers in the field of UMTS and communications systems.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgement xxi

About the Author xxiii

Acronyms xxv

Part I UMTS Networks

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Mobile Telecommunication Networks and Computer Networks 4

1.2 Network Design Principles and Business Models 5

1.2.1 Business Models 5

1.2.2 The Cathedral and the Bazaar 5

1.2.3 Operator Control and User Control 6

1.2.4 In the Beginning is the Architecture and In the Beginning is the Protocol 7

1.2.5 Convergence 8

1.3 Summary 8

2 UMTS Motivation and Context 11

2.1 The Evolution of the Mobile Telecommunication Market 12

2.1.1 Overall Market Evolution 12

2.1.2 Service Evolution 14

2.2 The Evolution of Mobile Telecommunication Technology 15

2.3 The Genesis of UMTS 17

2.3.1 UMTS Services 18

2.3.2 UMTS Technical Requirements 19

2.4 Comparison of UMTS with Other Mobile Technologies 21

2.4.1 WLAN 21

2.4.2 Other Mobile Technologies 21

2.5 Summary 24

3 Standardization 25

3.1 The Importance of Standardization 26

3.2 Standardization Bodies 27

3.2.1 ITU 27

3.2.2 3GPP 27

3.2.3 3GPP2 29

3.2.4 IETF 29

3.2.5 IEEE 30

3.3 Summary 31

4 UMTS Architecture and Functionality 33

4.1 Overview of Telecommunication Network Architecture 34

4.1.1 Overview of Mobile Network Functionality 34

4.1.2 User-Plane, Control-Plane and Management Plane 35

4.2 High-Level Architecture of 3G Networks 36

4.3 GSM Architecture 37

4.4 GPRS Architecture 38

4.4.1 PS Domain and CS Domain 39

4.5 UMTS Architecture 39

4.5.1 IMS 40

4.6 3GPP System Architecture 40

4.7 WLAN Architecture 41

4.8 Summary 42

5 UMTS Radio Interface Technology—the Physical Layer 45

5.1 Information Coding 46

5.2 Sharing the Electromagnetic Spectrum 49

5.2.1 Frequency Division 49

5.2.2 Time Division 50

5.2.3 Space Division 50

5.2.4 Code Division 51

5.2.5 Advanced Division Techniques 55

5.3 Summary 57

6 Packet-switched Domain—Architecture and Protocols 59

6.1 Architecture 60

6.1.1 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) 61

6.1.2 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) 62

6.1.3 Home Location Register (HLR) 62

6.2 Protocols 62

6.2.1 User-Plane 62

6.2.2 Control-Plane 64

6.2.3 Discussion 65

6.3 Summary 66

7 Circuit-switched Domain—Architecture and Protocols 67

7.1 Architecture 68

7.2 Protocols 69

7.2.1 User-Plane 70

7.2.2 Control-Plane 70

7.3 Summary 72

8 UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network—Architecture and Protocols 73

8.1 Architecture 73

8.1.1 Node B 75

8.1.2 RNC 75

8.2 Protocols and Channels 76

8.2.1 User-Plane 77

8.2.2 Control-Plane 77

8.2.3 Lower Layers and Channels 78

8.3 Summary 80

9 User Equipment—Architecture and Protocols 81

9.1 Architecture 81

9.1.1 TE 82

9.1.2 MT 82

9.1.3 UICC 83

9.2 Summary 84

10 IP Multimedia Subsystem—Architecture and Protocols 85

10.1 IMS Service Support 86

10.1.1 Basic Service Support 87

10.1.2 Advanced Service Support 87

10.2 Architecture 87

10.2.1 CSCF 89

10.2.2 IP Connectivity Access Network 89

10.3 Protocols 90

10.3.1 User-Plane 90

10.3.2 Control-Plane 90

10.4 Summary 91

10.4.1 Introduction to Chapters 11–17 92

11 Basic UMTS Functionality 93

11.1 Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) 95

11.2 The Bearer Concept 96

11.3 UE Preparation 96

11.3.1 Searching for a Suitable Cell 97

11.3.2 Searching for a Suitable Network 97

11.4 RRC Connection Set-up Procedure 98

11.4.1 Message Flow for RRC Connection Set-up 98

11.5 GPRS Attach Procedure 99

11.5.1 Mobility Management States 99

11.5.2 Determining the Location of the UE 100

11.5.3 Message Flow for GPRS Attach 101

11.5.4 Combined GPRS/IMSI Attach 102

11.6 PDP Context Establishment Procedure 103

11.6.1 The PDP Context 103

11.6.2 PDP States 104

11.6.3 Message Flow for PDP Context Establishment 104

11.7 Detaching from the Network 105

11.8 Basic UMTS Functionality in Roaming Scenarios 106

11.9 Basic WLAN Functionality 106

11.9.1 Mobile Station Preparation 106

11.9.2 Establishing Radio Connectivity 108

11.9.3 Establishing IP Connectivity 108

11.10 Discussion 108

11.11 Summary 109

12 Mobility 111

12.1 Description of the Problems 112

12.2 Mobility in UMTS 113

12.2.1 Mobility in PMM-IDLE State 114

12.2.2 Mobility in PMM-CONNECTED State 117

12.3 Link-Layer Mobility in a WLAN 118

12.4 Mobility in Computer Networks 119

12.4.1 Basic Mobility Support by the IETF 120

12.4.2 Advanced Mobility Support by the IETF 122

12.5 Discussion 124

12.6 Summary 125

13 Security 127

13.1 Description of the Problems 128

13.1.1 Information Disclosure 129

13.1.2 Information Forgery 129

13.1.3 Theft of Service 130

13.1.4 Denial of Service 131

13.2 General Approach to Solutions 131

13.2.1 Secret Keys 131

13.2.2 Integrity Protection 132

13.2.3 Encryption 133

13.2.4 Authentication 133

13.2.5 Authorization 134

13.2.6 Discussion 134

13.3 Security in UMTS 134

13.3.1 Secret Keys 135

13.3.2 Authentication and Authorization in the PS Domain 135

13.3.3 Authentication and Authorization in the IMS 137

13.3.4 Integrity Protection 137

13.3.4.1 Integrity Protection on the Air Interface 137

13.3.4.2 Integrity Protection in Inter-PLMN Scenarios 138

13.3.5 Encryption 138

13.4 Security in a WLAN 138

13.4.1 Secret Keys 138

13.4.2 Authentication and Authorization 139

13.4.3 Integrity Protection and Encryption 140

13.5 Security Computer Networks 140

13.5.1 Authentication and Authorization 140

13.5.2 Integrity Protection and Encryption 144

13.6 Discussion 144

13.7 Summary 145

14 Quality of Service 147

14.1 Description of the Problems 148

14.1.1 QoS and Scalability 148

14.1.2 QoS Parameterization 149

14.1.3 QoS Signalling and QoS Provisioning 150

14.1.4 QoS and Seamless Mobility 151

14.2 QoS in Computer Networks 151

14.2.1 QoS Provisioning 152

14.2.2 QoS Signalling 157

14.2.3 End-to-end QoS Signalling Scenarios 161

14.3 QoS in UMTS 162

14.3.1 UMTS Traffic Classes 162

14.3.2 QoS Signalling for the UMTS Bearer 163

14.3.3 UMTS QoS Provisioning 163

14.3.4 QoS of the End-to-End Bearer in UMTS 164

14.4 Link-Layer QoS in a WLAN 166

14.5 Discussion 166

14.6 Summary 167

15 Session Control 169

15.1 Description of the Problems 170

15.2 SIP 171

15.2.1 SIP Identifiers 171

15.2.2 SIP Infrastructure 172

15.2.3 SIP Transactions 173

15.2.4 Session Description 174

15.2.5 SIP Example Message Flows 175

15.3 SIP in the IMS 177

15.3.1 SIP Infrastructure in the IMS 178

15.3.2 UE Registration in the IMS 180

15.3.3 Session Creation in the IMS 182

15.3.4 Session Release and UE Deregistration in the IMS 185

15.4 Discussion 186

15.5 Summary 186

16 Charging 189

16.1 Description of the Problems 190

16.2 Charging in Computer Networks and WLAN 192

16.3 Charging in UMTS 192

16.3.1 Offline Charging and Online Charging 193

16.3.2 UMTS Charging Architecture 194

16.3.3 Charging in the PS Domain 200

16.3.4 Charging in the IMS 202

16.4 Discussion 204

16.5 Summary 205

17 Policy Control 207

17.1 Description of the Problems 208

17.2 Policy Control in Computer Networks 209

17.2.1 Policy Control in Roaming 209

17.2.2 Policy Control in QoS Authorization 210

17.2.3 The IETF Policy Architecture 210

17.2.4 Policy Push 211

17.3 Policy Control in UMTS 212

17.3.1 Service-based Local Policy 212

17.3.2 Policy and Charging Control 215

17.4 Discussion 217

17.5 Summary 219

18 WLAN and Other Alternative Access Methods 221

18.1 Interworking WLAN 222

18.1.1 I-WLAN Scenarios 222

18.1.2 I-WLAN Architecture 223

18.1.3 I-WLAN Basic Functionality 226

18.1.4 I-WLAN Mobility 227

18.1.5 I-WLAN Security 227

18.1.6 I-WLAN QoS 227

18.1.7 I-WLAN Charging 228

18.1.8 I-WLAN Policy Control 228

18.2 Generic Access Network 229

18.2.1 Enhanced GAN 232

18.3 Comparison and Discussion 232

18.4 Femtocells 233

18.5 Summary 234

19 UMTS Releases Summary 235

19.1 Release 99 235

19.2 Release 4 236

19.3 Release 5 236

19.4 Release 6 236

19.5 Release 7 237

19.6 Outlook 239

Part I Epilogue—Convergence 241

Part II Beyond UMTS Networks

20 4G Motivation and Context 245

20.1 Today’s Mobile Telecommunication Networks 246

20.1.1 Today’s Services and Technology Trends 246

20.1.2 Today’s Business Models 248

20.2 Short-term Evolution Towards 4G 251

20.2.1 Short-term Service and Technology Trends 251

20.2.2 Short-term Business Models 260

20.3 IMT-Advanced 262

20.3.1 IMT-Advanced Services and Technologies 262

20.3.2 Summary of IMT-Advanced 266

20.4 Discussion 266

20.5 Summary 267

21 Evolution Towards 4G: 3GPP 269

21.1 3GPP Rel-8—Architecture and Protocols 271

21.2 E-UTRA 271

21.3 EPC—Architecture and Protocols 273

21.3.1 High-level View of the EPC Architecture and Protocols 273

21.3.2 Detailed EPC Architecture and Protocols 274

21.3.3 E-UTRAN: Architecture and Protocols 280

21.4 3GPP Rel-8 Functionality 281

21.4.1 Basic Functionality 281

21.4.2 Mobility 288

21.4.3 Security 291

21.4.4 QoS 293

21.4.5 Charging 294

21.4.6 Policy Control 294

21.5 Discussion 294

21.6 Summary 294

22 Evolution Towards 4G: Non-3GPP Technologies 297

22.1 cdma2000 298

22.1.1 cdma2000-1xRTT and cdma2000-1xEV-DO 299

22.1.2 UMB 299

22.2 Mobile WiMAX 301

22.2.1 Radio Interface 302

22.2.2 Architecture and Protocols 302

22.2.3 Interworking with Other Technologies 304

22.2.4 Mobile WiMAX and IMT-Advanced 304

22.3 Next Generation Networks 304

22.3.1 ETSI NGN 305

22.3.2 PacketCable 307

22.4 Discussion 310

22.5 Summary 311

23 Beyond 4G? 313

23.1 Self-managing Networks 313

23.1.1 Self-management in a 3GPP System 315

23.1.2 Discussion 316

23.2 Ubiquitous Computing, the Internet of Things and Ambient Intelligence 316

23.3 Clean Slate Approach 318

23.3.1 Discussion 319

23.4 Summary 319

Part II Epilogue—Convergence Revisited 321

Appendix A: Terminology 323

Appendix B: The Systematics of 3GPP Specification Numbering 327

References 331

Index 337

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