Digital Electronics: Principles, Devices and ApplicationsISBN: 9780470032145
752 pages
September 2007

Devices used in applications such as these are constantly decreasing in size and employing more complex technology. It is therefore essential for engineers and students to understand the fundamentals, implementation and application principles of digital electronics, devices and integrated circuits. This is so that they can use the most appropriate and effective technique to suit their technical need.
This book provides practical and comprehensive coverage of digital electronics, bringing together information on fundamental theory, operational aspects and potential applications. With worked problems, examples, and review questions for each chapter, Digital Electronics includes:
 information on number systems, binary codes, digital arithmetic, logic gates and families, and Boolean algebra;
 an indepth look at multiplexers, demultiplexers, devices for arithmetic operations, flipflops and related devices, counters and registers, and data conversion circuits;
 uptodate coverage of recent application fields, such as programmable logic devices, microprocessors, microcontrollers, digital troubleshooting and digital instrumentation.
A comprehensive, mustread book on digital electronics for senior undergraduate and graduate students of electrical, electronics and computer engineering, and a valuable reference book for professionals and researchers.
1 Number Systems.
1.1 Analogue Versus Digital.
1.2 Introduction to Number Systems.
1.3 Decimal Number System.
1.4 Binary Number System.
1.4.1 Advantages.
1.5 Octal Number System.
1.6 Hexadecimal Number System.
1.7 Number Systems – Some Common Terms.
1.7.1 Binary Number System.
1.7.2 Decimal Number System.
1.7.3 Octal Number System.
1.7.4 Hexadecimal Number System.
1.8 Number Representation in Binary.
1.8.1 Signbit Magnitude.
1.8.2 1’s Complement.
1.8.3 2’s Complement.
1.9 Finding the Decimal Equivalent.
1.9.1 BinarytoDecimal Conversion.
1.9.2 OctaltoDecimal Conversion.
1.9.3 HexadecimaltoDecimal Conversion.
1.10 DecimaltoBinary Conversion.
1.11 DecimaltoOctal Conversion.
1.12 DecimaltoHexadecimal Conversion.
1.13 Binary–Octal and Octal–Binary Conversions.
1.14 Hex–Binary and Binary–Hex Conversions.
1.15 Hex–Octal and Octal–Hex Conversions.
1.16 The Four Axioms.
1.17 Floatingpoint Numbers.
1.17.1 Range of Numbers and Precision.
17.2 Floatingpoint Number Formats.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
2 Binary Codes.
2.1 Binary Coded Decimal.
2.1.1 BCDtoBinary Conversion.
2.1.2 BinarytoBCD Conversion.
2.1.3 Higherdensity BCD Encoding.
2.1.4 Packed and Unpacked BCD Numbers.
2.2 Excess3 Code.
2.3 Gray Code.
2.3.1 Binary–Gray Code Conversion.
2.3.2 Gray Code–Binary Conversion.
2.3.3 nary Gray Code.
2.3.4 Applications.
2.4 Alphanumeric Codes.
2.4.1 ASCII code.
2.4.2 EBCDIC code.
2.4.3 Unicode.
2.5 Sevensegment Display Code.
2.6 Error Detection and Correction Codes.
2.6.1 Parity Code.
2.6.2 Repetition Code.
2.6.3 Cyclic Redundancy Check Code.
2.6.4 Hamming Code.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
3 Digital Arithmetic.
3.1 Basic Rules of Binary Addition and Subtraction.
3.2 Addition of Largerbit Binary Numbers.
3.2.1 Addition Using the 2’s Complement Method.
3.3 Subtraction of Largerbit Binary Numbers.
3.3.1 Subtraction Using 2’s Complement Arithmetic.
3.4 BCD Addition and Subtraction in Excess3 Code.
3.4.1 Addition.
3.4.2 Subtraction.
3.5 Binary Multiplication.
3.5.1 Repeated LeftShift and Add Algorithm.
3.5.2 Repeated Add and RightShift Algorithm.
3.6 Binary Division.
3.6.1 Repeated RightShift and Subtract Algorithm.
3.6.2 Repeated Subtract and LeftShift Algorithm.
3.7 Floatingpoint Arithmetic.
3.7.1 Addition and Subtraction.
3.7.2 Multiplication and Division.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
4 Logic Gates and Related Devices.
4.1 Positive and Negative Logic.
4.2 Truth Table.
4.3 Logic Gates.
4.3.1 OR Gate.
4.3.2 AND Gate.
4.3.3 NOT Gate.
4.3.4 EXCLUSIVEOR Gate.
4.3.5 NAND Gate.
4.3.6 NOR Gate.
4.3.7 EXCLUSIVENOR Gate.
4.3.8 INHIBIT Gate.
4.4 Universal Gates.
4.5 Gates with Open Collector/Drain Outputs.
4.6 Tristate Logic Gates.
4.7 ANDORINVERT Gates.
4.8 Schmitt Gates.
4.9 Special Output Gates.
4.10 Fanout of Logic Gates.
4.11 Buffers and Transceivers.
4.12 IEEE/ANSI Standard Symbols.
4.12.1 IEEE/ANSI Standards – Salient Features.
4.12.2 ANSI Symbols for Logic Gate ICs.
4.13 Some Common Applications of Logic Gates.
4.13.1 OR Gate.
4.13.2 AND Gate.
4.13.3 EXOR/EXNOR Gate.
4.13.4 Inverter.
4.14 Applicationrelevant Information.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
5 Logic Families.
5.1 Logic Families – Significance and Types.
5.1.1 Significance.
5.1.2 Types of Logic Family.
5.2 Characteristic Parameters.
5.3 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL).
5.3.1 Standard TTL.
5.3.2 Other Logic Gates in Standard TTL.
5.3.3 Lowpower TTL.
5.3.4 Highpower TTL (74H/54H).
5.3.5 Schottky TTL (74S/54S).
5.3.6 Lowpower Schottky TTL (74LS/54LS).
5.3.7 Advanced Lowpower Schottky TTL (74ALS/54ALS).
5.3.8 Advanced Schottky TTL (74AS/54AS).
5.3.9 Fairchild Advanced Schottky TTL (74F/54F).
5.3.10 Floating and Unused Inputs.
5.3.11 Current Transients and Power Supply Decoupling.
5.4 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL).
5.4.1 Different Subfamilies.
5.4.2 Logic Gate Implementation in ECL.
5.4.3 Salient Features of ECL.
5.5 CMOS Logic Family.
5.5.1 Circuit Implementation of Logic Functions.
5.5.2 CMOS Subfamilies.
5.6 BiCMOS Logic.
5.6.1 BiCMOS Inverter.
5.6.2 BiCMOS NAND.
5.7 NMOS and PMOS Logic.
5.7.1 PMOS Logic.
5.7.2 NMOS Logic.
5.8 Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) Family.
5.9 Comparison of Different Logic Families.
5.10 Guidelines to Using TTL Devices.
5.11 Guidelines to Handling and Using CMOS Devices.
5.12 Interfacing with Different Logic Families.
5.12.1 CMOStoTTL Interface.
5.12.2 TTLtoCMOS Interface.
5.12.3 TTLtoECL and ECLtoTTL Interfaces.
5.12.4 CMOStoECL and ECLtoCMOS Interfaces.
5.13 Classification of Digital ICs.
5.14 Applicationrelevant Information.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
6 Boolean Algebra and Simplification Techniques.
6.1 Introduction to Boolean Algebra.
6.1.1 Variables, Literals and Terms in Boolean Expressions.
6.1.2 Equivalent and Complement of Boolean Expressions.
6.1.3 Dual of a Boolean Expression.
6.2 Postulates of Boolean Algebra.
6.3 Theorems of Boolean Algebra.
6.3.1 Theorem 1 (Operations with ‘0’ and ‘1’).
6.3.2 Theorem 2 (Operations with ‘0’ and ‘1’).
6.3.3 Theorem 3 (Idempotent or Identity Laws).
6.3.4 Theorem 4 (Complementation Law).
6.3.5 Theorem 5 (Commutative Laws).
6.3.6 Theorem 6 (Associative Laws).
6.3.7 Theorem 7 (Distributive Laws) .
6.3.8 Theorem 8.
6.3.9 Theorem 9.
6.3.10 Theorem 10 (Absorption Law or Redundancy Law).
6.3.11 Theorem 11.
6.3.12 Theorem 12 (Consensus Theorem).
6.3.13 Theorem 13 (DeMorgan’s Theorem).
6.3.14 Theorem 14 (Transposition Theorem).
6.3.15 Theorem 15.
6.3.16 Theorem 16.
6.3.17 Theorem 17 (Involution Law).
6.4 Simplification Techniques.
6.4.1 SumofProducts Boolean Expressions.
6.4.2 ProductofSums Expressions.
6.4.3 Expanded Forms of Boolean Expressions.
6.4.4 Canonical Form of Boolean Expressions.
6.4.5 _ and _ Nomenclature.
6.5 Quine–McCluskey Tabular Method.
6.5.1 Tabular Method for MultiOutput Functions.
6.6 Karnaugh Map Method.
6.6.1 Construction of a Karnaugh Map.
6.6.2 Karnaugh Map for Boolean Expressions with a Larger Number of Variables.
6.6.3 Karnaugh Maps for MultiOutput Functions.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
7 Arithmetic Circuits.
7.1 Combinational Circuits.
7.2 Implementing Combinational Logic.
7.3 Arithmetic Circuits – Basic Building Blocks.
7.3.1 Halfadder.
7.3.2 Full Adder.
7.3.3 HalfSubtractor.
7.3.4 Full Subtractor.
7.3.5 Controlled Inverter.
7.4 Adder–Subtractor.
7.5 BCD Adder.
7.6 Carry Propagation–Lookahead Carry Generator.
7.7 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).
7.8 Multipliers.
7.9 Magnitude Comparator.
7.9.1 Cascading Magnitude Comparators.
7.10 Applicationrelevant Information.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
8 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.
8.1 Multiplexer.
8.1.1 Inside the Multiplexer.
8.1.2 Implementing Boolean Functions with Multiplexers.
8.1.3 Multiplexers for ParalleltoSerial Data Conversion.
8.1.4 Cascading Multiplexer Circuits.
8.2 Encoders.
8.2.1 Priority Encoder.
8.3 Demultiplexers and Decoders.
8.3.1 Implementing Boolean Functions with Decoders.
8.3.2 Cascading Decoder Circuits.
8.4 Applicationrelevant Information.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
9 Programmable Logic Devices.
9.1 Fixed Logic Versus Programmable Logic.
9.1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages.
9.2 Programmable Logic Devices – An Overview.
9.2.1 Programmable ROMs.
9.2.2 Programmable Logic Array.
9.2.3 Programmable Array Logic.
9.2.4 Generic Array Logic.
9.2.5 Complex Programmable Logic Device.
9.2.6 Fieldprogrammable Gate Array.
9.3 Programmable ROMs.
9.4 Programmable Logic Array.
9.5 Programmable Array Logic.
9.5.1 PAL Architecture.
9.5.2 PAL Numbering System.
9.6 Generic Array Logic.
9.7 Complex Programmable Logic Devices.
9.7.1 Internal Architecture.
9.7.2 Applications.
9.8 Fieldprogrammable Gate Arrays.
9.8.1 Internal Architecture.
9.8.2 Applications.
9.9 Programmable Interconnect Technologies.
9.9.1 Fuse.
9.9.2 Floatinggate Transistor Switch.
9.9.3 Static RAMcontrolled Programmable Switches.
9.9.4 Antifuse.
9.10 Design and Development of Programmable Logic Hardware.
9.11 Programming Languages.
9.11.1 ABELHardware Description Language.
9.11.2 VHDLVHSIC Hardware Description Language.
9.11.3 Verilog.
9.11.4 Java HDL.
9.12 Application Information on PLDs.
9.12.1 SPLDs.
9.12.2 CPLDs.
9.12.3 FPGAs.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
10 Flipflops and Related Devices.
10.1 Multivibrator.
10.1.1 Bistable Multivibrator.
10.1.2 Schmitt Trigger.
10.1.3 Monostable Multivibrator.
10.1.4 Astable Multivibrator.
10.2 Integrated Circuit (IC) Multivibrators.
10.2.1 Digital ICbased Monostable Multivibrator.
10.2.2 IC Timerbased Multivibrators.
10.3 RS Flipflop.
10.3.1 RS Flipflop with Active LOW Inputs.
10.3.2 RS Flipflop with Active HIGH Inputs.
10.3.3 Clocked RS Flipflop 377.
10.4 Leveltriggered and Edgetriggered Flipflops.
10.5 JK Flipflop.
10.5.1 JK Flipflop with PRESET and CLEAR Inputs.
10.5.2 Master–Slave Flipflops.
10.6 Toggle Flipflop (T Flipflop).
10.6.1 JK Flipflop as a Toggle Flipflop.
10.7 D Flipflop.
10.7.1 JK Flipflop as D Flipflop.
10.7.2 D Latch.
10.8 Synchronous and Asynchronous Inputs.
10.9 Flipflop Timing Parameters.
10.9.1 Setup and Hold Times.
10.9.2 Propagation Delay.
10.9.3 Clock Pulse HIGH and LOW Times.
10.9.4 Asynchronous Input Active Pulse Width.
10.9.5 Clock Transition Times.
10.9.6 Maximum Clock Frequency.
10.10 Flipflop Applications.
10.10.1 Switch Debouncing.
10.10.2 Flipflop Synchronization.
10.10.3 Detecting the Sequence of Edges.
10.11 Applicationrelevant Data.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
11 Counters and Registers.
11.1 Ripple (Asynchronous) Counter.
11.1.1 Propagation Delay in Ripple Counters.
11.2 Synchronous Counter.
11.3 Modulus of a Counter.
11.4 Binary Ripple Counter – Operational Basics.
11.4.1 Binary Ripple Counters with a Modulus of Less than 2N.
11.4.2 Ripple Counters in IC Form.
11.5 Synchronous (or Parallel) Counters.
11.6 UP/DOWN Counters.
11.7 Decade and BCD Counters.
11.8 Presettable Counters.
11.8.1 Variable Modulus with Presettable Counters.
11.9 Decoding a Counter.
11.10 Cascading Counters.
11.10.1 Cascading Binary Counters.
11.10.2 Cascading BCD Counters.
11.11 Designing Counters with Arbitrary Sequences.
11.11.1 Excitation Table of a Flipflop.
11.11.2 State Transition Diagram.
11.11.3 Design Procedure.
11.12 Shift Register.
11.12.1 Serialin Serialout Shift Register.
11.12.2 Serialin Parallelout Shift Register.
11.12.3 Parallelin Serialout Shift Register.
11.12.4 Parallelin, Parallelout Shift Register.
11.12.5 Bidirectional Shift Register.
11.12.6 Universal Shift Register.
11.13 Shift Register Counters.
11.13.1 Ring Counter.
11.13.2 Shift Counter.
11.14 IEEE/ANSI Symbology for Registers and Counters.
11.14.1 Counters.
11.14.2 Registers.
11.15 Applicationrelevant Information.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
12 Data Conversion Circuits – D/A and A/D Converters.
12.1 DigitaltoAnalogue Converters.
12.1.1 Simple Resistive Divider Network for D/A Conversion.
12.1.2 Binary Ladder Network for D/A Conversion.
12.2 D/A Converter Specifications.
12.2.1 Resolution.
12.2.2 Accuracy.
12.2.3 Conversion Speed or Settling Time.
12.2.4 Dynamic Range.
12.2.5 Nonlinearity and Differential Nonlinearity.
12.2.6 Monotonocity.
12.3 Types of D/A Converter.
12.3.1 Multiplying D/A Converters.
12.3.2 Bipolaroutput D/A Converters.
12.3.3 Companding D/A Converters.
12.4 Modes of Operation.
12.4.1 Current Steering Mode of Operation.
12.4.2 Voltage Switching Mode of Operation.
12.5 BCDinput D/A Converter.
12.6 Integrated Circuit D/A Converters.
12.6.1 DAC08.
12.6.2 DAC0808.
12.6.3 DAC80.
12.6.4 AD 7524.
12.6.5 DAC1408/DAC1508.
12.7 D/A Converter Applications.
12.7.1 D/A Converter as a Multiplier.
12.7.2 D/A converter as a Divider.
12.7.3 Programmable Integrator.
12.7.4 Lowfrequency Function Generator.
12.7.5 Digitally Controlled Filters.
12.8 A/D Converters.
12.9 A/D Converter Specifications.
12.9.1 Resolution.
12.9.2 Accuracy.
12.9.3 Gain and Offset Errors.
12.9.4 Gain and Offset Drifts.
12.9.5 Sampling Frequency and Aliasing Phenomenon.
12.9.6 Quantization Error.
12.9.7 Nonlinearity.
12.9.8 Differential Nonlinearity.
12.9.9 Conversion Time.
12.9.10 Aperture and Acquisition Times.
12.9.11 Code Width.
12.10 A/D Converter Terminology.
12.10.1 Unipolar Mode Operation.
12.10.2 Bipolar Mode Operation.
12.10.3 Coding.
12.10.4 Low Byte and High Byte.
12.10.5 Rightjustified Data, Leftjustified Data.
12.10.6 Command Register, Status Register.
12.10.7 Control Lines.
12.11 Types of A/D Converter.
12.11.1 Simultaneous or Flash A/D Converters.
12.11.2 Halfflash A/D Converter.
12.11.3 Countertype A/D Converter.
12.11.4 Trackingtype A/D Converter.
12.11.5 Successive Approximation Type A/D Converter.
12.11.6 Single, Dual and Multislope A/D Converters.
12.11.7 SigmaDelta A/D Converter.
12.12 Integrated Circuit A/D Converters.
12.12.1 ADC0800.
12.12.2 ADC0808.
12.12.3 ADC80/AD ADC80.
12.12.4 ADC84/ADC85/AD ADC84/AD ADC85/AD5240.
12.12.5 AD 7820.
12.12.6 ICL 7106/ICL 7107.
12.13 A/D Converter Applications.
12.13.1 Data Acquisition.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
13 Microprocessors.
13.1 Introduction to Microprocessors.
13.2 Evolution of Microprocessors.
13.3 Inside a Microprocessor.
13.3.1 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).
13.3.2 Register File.
13.3.3 Control Unit.
13.4 Basic Microprocessor Instructions.
13.4.1 Data Transfer Instructions.
13.4.2 Arithmetic Instructions.
13.4.3 Logic Instructions.
13.4.4 Data Transfer or Branch or Program Control Instructions.
13.4.5 Machine Control Instructions.
13.5 Addressing Modes.
13.5.1 Absolute or Memory Direct Addressing Mode.
13.5.2 Immediate Addressing Mode.
13.5.3 Register Direct Addressing Mode.
13.5.4 Register Indirect Addressing Mode.
13.5.5 Indexed Addressing Mode.
13.5.6 Implicit Addressing Mode and Relative Addressing Mode.
13.6 Microprocessor Selection.
13.6.1 Selection Criteria.
13.6.2 Microprocessor Selection Table for Common Applications.
13.7 Programming Microprocessors.
13.8 RISC Versus CISC Processors.
13.9 Eightbit Microprocessors.
13.9.1 8085 Microprocessor.
13.9.2 Motorola 6800 Microprocessor.
13.9.3 Zilog Z80 microprocessor.
13.10 16bit Microprocessors.
13.10.1 8086 Microprocessor.
13.10.2 80186 Microprocessor.
13.10.3 80286 Microprocessor.
13.10.4 MC68000 Microprocessor.
13.11 32bit Microprocessors.
13.11.1 80386 Microprocessor.
13.11.2 MC68020 Microprocessor.
13.11.3 MC68030 Microprocessor.
13.11.4 80486 Microprocessor.
13.11.5 PowerPC RISC Microprocessors.
13.12 Pentium Series of Microprocessors.
13.12.1 Salient Features.
13.12.2 Pentium Pro Microprocessor.
13.12.3 Pentium II Series.
13.12.4 Pentium III and Pentium IV Microprocessors.
13.12.5 Pentium M, D and Extreme Edition Processors.
13.12.6 Celeron and Xeon Processors.
13.13 Microprocessors for Embedded Applications.
13.14 Peripheral Devices.
13.14.1 Programmable Timer/Counter.
13.14.2 Programmable Peripheral Interface.
13.14.3 Programmable Interrupt Controller.
13.14.4 DMA Controller.
13.14.5 Programmable Communication Interface.
13.14.6 Math Coprocessor.
13.14.7 Programmable Keyboard/Display Interface.
13.14.8 Programmable CRT Controller.
13.14.9 Floppy Disk Controller.
13.14.10 Clock Generator.
13.14.11 Octal Bus Transceiver.
Review Questions.
Further Reading.
14 Microcontrollers.
14.1 Introduction to the Microcontroller.
14.1.1 Applications.
14.2 Inside the Microcontroller.
14.2.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU).
14.2.2 Random Access Memory (RAM).
14.2.3 Read Only Memory (ROM).
14.2.4 Specialfunction Registers.
14.2.5 Peripheral Components.
14.3 Microcontroller Architecture.
14.3.1 Architecture to Access Memory.
14.3.2 Mapping Specialfunction Registers into Memory Space.
14.3.3 Processor Architecture.
14.4 Powersaving Modes.
14.5 Applicationrelevant Information.
14.5.1 Eightbit Microcontrollers.
14.5.2 16bit Microcontrollers.
14.5.3 32bit Microcontrollers.
14.6 Interfacing Peripheral Devices with a Microcontroller.
14.6.1 Interfacing LEDs.
14.6.2 Interfacing Electromechanical Relays.
14.6.3 Interfacing Keyboards.
14.6.4 Interfacing Sevensegment Displays.
14.6.5 Interfacing LCD Displays.
14.6.6 Interfacing A/D Converters.
14.6.7 Interfacing D/A Converters.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
15 Computer Fundamentals.
15.1 Anatomy of a Computer.
15.1.1 Central Processing Unit.
15.1.2 Memory.
15.1.3 Input/Output Ports.
15.2 A Computer System.
15.3 Types of Computer System.
15.3.1 Classification of Computers on the Basis of Applications.
15.3.2 Classification of Computers on the Basis of the Technology Used.
15.3.3 Classification of Computers on the Basis of Size and Capacity.
15.4 Computer Memory.
15.4.1 Primary Memory.
15.5 Random Access Memory.
15.5.1 Static RAM.
15.5.2 Dynamic RAM.
15.5.3 RAM Applications.
15.6 Read Only Memory.
15.6.1 ROM Architecture.
15.6.2 Types of ROM.
15.6.3 Applications of ROMs.
15.7 Expanding Memory Capacity.
15.7.1 Word Size Expansion.
15.7.2 Memory Location Expansion.
15.8 Input and Output Ports.
15.8.1 Serial Ports.
15.8.2 Parallel Ports.
15.8.3 Internal Buses.
15.9 Input/Output Devices.
15.9.1 Input Devices.
15.9.2 Output Devices.
15.10 Secondary Storage of Auxiliary Storage.
15.10.1 Magnetic Storage Devices.
15.10.2 Magnetooptical Storage Devices.
15.10.3 Optical Storage Devices.
15.10.4 USB Flash Drive.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
16 Troubleshooting Digital Circuits and Test Equipment.
16.1 General Troubleshooting Guidelines.
16.1.1 Faults Internal to Digital Integrated Circuits.
16.1.2 Faults External to Digital Integrated Circuits.
16.2 Troubleshooting Sequential Logic Circuits.
16.3 Troubleshooting Arithmetic Circuits.
16.4 Troubleshooting Memory Devices.
16.4.1 Troubleshooting RAM Devices.
16.4.2 Troubleshooting ROM Devices.
16.5 Test and Measuring Equipment.
16.6 Digital Multimeter.
16.6.1 Advantages of Using a Digital Multimeter.
16.6.2 Inside the Digital Meter.
16.6.3 Significance of the Halfdigit.
16.7 Oscilloscope.
16.7.1 Importance of Specifications and Frontpanel Controls.
16.7.2 Types of Oscilloscope.
16.8 Analogue Oscilloscopes.
16.9 CRT Storage Type Analogue Oscilloscopes.
16.10 Digital Oscilloscopes.
16.11 Analogue Versus Digital Oscilloscopes.
16.12 Oscilloscope Specifications.
16.12.1 Analogue Oscilloscopes.
16.12.2 Analogue Storage Oscilloscope.
16.12.3 Digital Storage Oscilloscope.
16.13 Oscilloscope Probes.
16.13.1 Probe Compensation.
16.14 Frequency Counter.
16.14.1 Universal Counters – Functional Modes.
16.14.2 Basic Counter Architecture.
16.14.3 Reciprocal Counters.
16.14.4 Continuouscount Counters.
16.14.5 Counter Specifications.
16.14.6 Microwave Counters.
16.15 Frequency Synthesizers and Synthesized Function/Signal Generators.
16.15.1 Direct Frequency Synthesis.
16.15.2 Indirect Synthesis.
16.15.3 Sampled Sine Synthesis (Direct Digital Synthesis).
16.15.4 Important Specifications.
16.15.5 Synthesized Function Generators.
16.15.6 Arbitrary Waveform Generator.
16.16 Logic Probe.
16.17 Logic Analyser.
16.17.1 Operational Modes.
16.17.2 Logic Analyser Architecture.
16.17.3 Key Specifications.
16.18 Computer–Instrument Interface Standards.
16.18.1 IEEE488 Interface.
16.19 Virtual Instrumentation.
16.19.1 Use of Virtual Instruments.
16.19.2 Components of a Virtual Instrument.
Review Questions.
Problems.
Further Reading.
Index.
He has eight books to his credit including Satellite Technology: Principles and Applications, Microwaves and Radar, Handbook of Electronics, Electronics and Communication Simplified, Electronics for Competitions, Television Technician’s Course, Electronics Projects for Beginners and Facing the Interview Board for Electronics Professionals. He has also authored about 150 technical articles and papers in national and international magazines and conferences and has two patents (Patent pending) to his credit. He is Life Fellow of Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers (IETE) and Life Member of Indian Laser Association
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