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Ultra Wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging

Ben Allen (Editor), Mischa Dohler (Editor), Ernest Okon (Editor), Wasim Malik (Editor), Anthony Brown (Editor), David Edwards (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-03255-8
508 pages
November 2006
Ultra Wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging (0470032553) cover image


Providing up-to-date material for UWB antennas and propagation as used in a wide variety of applications, "Ultra-wideband Antennas and Propagation for Communications, Radar and Imaging" includes fundamental theory, practical design information and extensive discussion of UWB applications from biomedical imaging, through to radar and wireless communications.

An in-depth treatment of ultra-wideband signals in practical environments is given, including interference, coexistence and diversity considerations.  The text includes antennas and propagation in biological media in addition to more conventional environments. The topics covered are approached with the aim of helping practising engineers to view the subject from a different angle, and to consider items as variables that were treated as constants in narrowband and wideband systems.

  • Features tables of propagation data, photographs of antenna systems and graphs of results (e.g. radiation patterns, propagation characteristics)
  • Covers the fundamentals of antennas and propagation, as well as offering an in-depth treatment of antenna elements and arrays for UWB systems, and UWB propagation models
  • Provides a description of the underlying concepts for the design of antennas and arrays for conventional as well as ultra-wideband systems
  • Draws together UWB theory by using case-studies to show applications of antennas and propagation in communication, radar and imaging systems

The book highlights the unique design issues of using ultra-wideband and will serve both as an introductory text and a reference guide for designers and students alike.

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Table of Contents

Editors xv

Prime Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxvii

Abbreviations & Acronyms xxix

1 Introduction to UWB Signals and Systems 1
Andreas F. Molisch

1.1 History of UWB 1

1.2 Motivation 3

1.3 UWB Signals and Systems 6

1.4 Frequency Regulation 12

1.5 Applications, Operating Scenarios and Standardisation 13

1.6 System Outlook 15

References 16

Part I Fundamentals 19

Introduction to Part I 21
Wasim Q. Malik and David J. Edwards

2 Fundamental Electromagnetic Theory 25
Mischa Dohler

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Maxwell’s Equations 25

2.3 Resulting Principles 30

References 30

3 Basic Antenna Elements 31
Mischa Dohler

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Hertzian Dipole 31

3.3 Antenna Parameters and Terminology 34

3.4 Basic Antenna Elements 42

References 47

4 Antenna Arrays 49
Ernest E. Okon

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 Point Sources 49

4.3 The Principle of Pattern Multiplication 55

4.4 Linear Arrays of n Elements 56

4.5 Linear Broadside Arrays with Nonuniform Amplitude Distributions 58

4.6 Planar Arrays 62

4.7 Design Considerations 65

4.8 Summary 66

References 66

5 Beamforming 67
Ben Allen

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Antenna Arrays 69

5.3 Adaptive Array Systems 73

5.4 Beamforming 75

5.5 Summary 86

References 87

6 Antenna Diversity Techniques 89
Junsheng Liu, Wasim Q. Malik, David J. Edwards and Mohammad Ghavami

6.1 Introduction 89

6.2 A Review of Fading 89

6.3 Receive Diversity 93

6.4 Transmit Diversity 100

6.5 MIMO Diversity Systems 102

References 103

Part II Antennas for UWB Communications 105

Introduction to Part II 107
Ernest E. Okon

7 Theory of UWB Antenna Elements 111
Xiaodong Chen

7.1 Introduction 111

7.2 Mechanism of UWB Monopole Antennas 112

7.3 Planar UWB Monopole Antennas 121

7.4 Planar UWB Slot Antennas 132

7.5 Time-Domain Characteristics of Monopoles 140

7.6 Summary 144

Acknowledgements 144

References 144

8 Antenna Elements for Impulse Radio 147
Zhi Ning Chen

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 UWB Antenna Classification and Design Considerations 148

8.3 Omnidirectional and Directional Designs 153

8.4 Summary 160

References 161

9 Planar Dipole-like Antennas for Consumer Products 163
Peter Massey

9.1 Introduction 163

9.2 Computer Modelling and Measurement Techniques 164

9.3 Bicone Antennas and the Lossy Transmission Line Model 164

9.4 Planar Dipoles 167

9.5 Practical Antennas 178

9.6 Summary 194

Acknowledgements 195

References 195

10 UWB Antenna Elements for Consumer Electronic Applications 197
Dirk Manteuffel

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 Numerical Modelling and Extraction of the UWB Characterisation 199

10.3 Antenna Design and Integration 205

10.4 Propagation Modelling 214

10.5 System Analysis 215

10.6 Conclusions 218

References 220

11 Ultra-wideband Arrays 221
Ernest E. Okon

11.1 Introduction 221

11.2 Linear Arrays 221

11.3 Null and Maximum Directions for Uniform Arrays 225

11.4 Phased Arrays 230

11.5 Elements for UWB Array Design 232

11.6 Modelling Considerations 234

11.7 Feed Configurations 234

11.8 Design Considerations 238

11.9 Summary 239

References 240

12 UWB Beamforming 241
Mohammad Ghavami and Kaveh Heidary

12.1 Introduction 241

12.2 Basic Concept 242

12.3 A Simple Delay-line Transmitter Wideband Array 243

12.4 UWB Mono-pulse Arrays 249

12.5 Summary 257

References 258

Part III Propagation Measurements and Modelling for UWB Communications 259

Introduction to Part III 261
Mischa Dohler and Ben Allen

13 Analysis of UWB Signal Attenuation Through Typical Building Materials 265
Domenico Porcino

13.1 Introduction 265

13.2 A Brief Overview of Channel Characteristics 267

13.3 The Materials Under Test 270

13.4 Experimental Campaign 272

13.5 Conclusions 281

References 281

14 Large- and Medium-scale Propagation Modelling 283
Mischa Dohler, Junsheng Liu, R. Michael Buehrer, Swaroop Venkatesh and Ben Allen

14.1 Introduction 283

14.2 Deterministic Models 284

14.3 Statistical-Empirical Models 297

14.4 Standardised Reference Models 303

14.5 Conclusions 306

References 306

15 Small-scale Ultra-wideband Propagation Modelling 309
Swaroop Venkatesh, R. Michael Buehrer, Junsheng Liu and Mischa Dohler

15.1 Introduction 309

15.2 Small-scale Channel Modelling 310

15.3 Spatial Modelling 321

15.4 IEEE 802.15.3a Standard Model 324

15.5 IEEE 802.15.4a Standard Model 325

15.6 Summary 327

References 327

16 Antenna Design and Propagation Measurements and Modelling for UWBWireless BAN 331
Yang Hao, Akram Alomainy and Yan Zhao

16.1 Introduction 331

16.2 Propagation Channel Measurements and Characteristics 332

16.3 WBAN Channel Modelling 345

16.4 UWB System-Level Modelling of Potential Body-Centric Networks 353

16.5 Summary 355

References 358

17 Ultra-wideband Spatial Channel Characteristics 361
Wasim Q. Malik, Junsheng Liu, Ben Allen and David J. Edwards

17.1 Introduction 361

17.2 Preliminaries 361

17.3 UWB Spatial Channel Representation 362

17.4 Characterisation Techniques 363

17.5 Increase in the Communication Rate 364

17.6 Signal Quality Improvement 370

17.7 Performance Parameters 375

17.8 Summary 381

References 381

Part IV UWB Radar, Imaging and Ranging 385

Introduction to Part IV 387
Anthony K. Brown

18 Localisation in NLOS Scenarios with UWB Antenna Arrays 389
Thomas Kaiser, Christiane Senger, Amr Eltaher and Bamrung Tau Sieskul

18.1 Introduction 389

18.2 Underlying Mathematical Framework 394

18.3 Properties of UWB Beamforming 398

18.4 Beamloc Approach 401

18.5 Algorithmic Framework 403

18.6 Time-delay Estimation 404

18.7 Simulation Results 406

18.8 Conclusions 410

References 410

19 Antennas for Ground-penetrating Radar 413
Ian Craddock

19.1 Introduction 413

19.2 GPR Example Applications 413

19.3 Analysis and GPR Design 419

19.4 Antenna Elements 425

19.5 Antenna Measurements, Analysis and Simulation 430

19.6 Conclusions 433

Acknowledgements 434

References 434

20 Wideband Antennas for Biomedical Imaging 437
Ian Craddock

20.1 Introduction 437

20.2 Detection and Imaging 437

20.3 Waveform Choice and Antenna Design Criteria 440

20.4 Antenna Elements 441

20.5 Measurements, Analysis and Simulation 445

20.6 Conclusions 447

Acknowledgements 448

References 448

21 UWB Antennas for Radar and Related Applications 451
Anthony K. Brown

21.1 Introduction 451

21.2 Medium- and Long-Range Radar 452

21.3 UWB Reflector Antennas 453

21.4 UWB Feed Designs 459

21.5 Feeds with Low Dispersion 461

21.6 Summary 468

References 468

Index 471

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Author Information

Ben Allen completed his MSc and PhD degrees at the University of Bristol, U.K., in 1997 and 2001 respectively.Having undertaken post-doctorial research in the areas of smart antennas andMIMOwireless systems, he then became a lecturer at the Centre for Telecommunications Research, King’s College London where he co-founded the UWB research group. He is now with the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford. He has published numerous journal and conference papers in the above areas as well as a book on smart antennas. He has been in receipt of the IEE J Langham Thomson Premium and the ARMMS Best Paper Award, both for publications relating to UWB. He is a senior member of the IEEE, chartered engineer, member of the IEE, and a member of the IEE’s Professional Network Executive Committee on Antennas and Propagation.

Mischa Dohler obtained his MSc degree in Telecommunications from King’s College London, UK, in 1999, his Diploma in Electrical Engineering from Dresden University of Technology, Germany, in 2000, and his PhD from King’s College London in 2003. Hewas a lecturer at the Centre for Telecommunications Research, King’s College London, until June 2005. He is now a Senior Research Expert in the R&D department of France Telecom working on cognitive and sensor networks. Prior to Telecommunications, he studied Physics in Moscow. He has won various competitions in Mathematics and Physics, and participated in the 3rd round of the International Physics Olympics for Germany. He is a member of the IEEE and has been the Student Representative of the IEEE UKRI Section, member of the Student Activity Committee of IEEE Region 8 and the London Technology Network Business Fellow for King’s College London. He has published over 50 technical journal and conference papers, holds several patents, co-edited and contributed to several books, and has given numerous international short courses. He has been a TPC member and co-chair of various conferences and is an editor of the EURASIP journal, the IEEE Communication Letters, and the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Ernest E. Okon received the PhD degree in Electronic Engineering from King’s College London in 2001 and the MSc (with distinction) and BSc (honours) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Lagos in 1996 and 1992 respectively. His research interest is in electromagnetic modelling techniques, wide band antennas and arrays, sensor networks and RF circuits and devices. He taught undergraduate and postgraduate courses on antennas and propagation whilst at King’s College London. He joined BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre UK in 2001 and is currently a research scientist working on electromagnetic problems, MEMS, antennas and arrays. He has written numerous reports, and published journal and conference papers. He is a member of the IEE, IEEE and Optical Society of America. He is also listed in Who’s Who in the World, Marquis USA.

Wasim Q. Malik received his DPhil degree in Communications Engineering from the University of Oxford, UK, in 2005. Since then, he has been a Research Fellow at the University of Oxford, where his research focuses on ultrawideband propagation, antenna array systems, cognitive radio, and nanoscale sensors. He also holds a Junior Research Fellowship in Science at Wolfson College, Oxford, where he researches microwave tomographic imaging. Dr. Malik has published over 50 research papers in refereed journals and conferences, and has delivered keynote and invited talks at a number of conferences. He is a Guest Editor for the IEE Proceedings on Microwaves Antennas and Propagations forthcoming special issue on “Antenna systems and propagation for future wireless communications”. He has also been the General Co-Chair and Technical Program Committee Member at several international conferences. Dr. Malik received the Best Paper Award in the ARMMS RF and Microwave Conf., UK, Apr. 2006, the Recognition of Service Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) in 1997, and won the National Inter-University Computer Science Contest, Pakistan, in 1998. He is a member of the IEEE and the IET, and serves on the UK Task Group on Mobile and Terrestrial Propagation.

Anthony K. Brown is a Professor in Communications Engineering and leads the Microwave and Communication Systems research group at the University of Manchester (UK). He joined academia in 2003 having spent 28 years in industry, most recently for Easat Antennas Ltd where he is retained as company Chairman. He is a recognised expert in antennas and propagation as applied to radar and communications systems. Professor Brown is a member of the Technical Advisory Commission to the Federal Communication Commission (USA)- and is a UK representative to the EU’s COST Action 284 Management Committee. He has advised various international bodies including in Canada, Malaysia and USA. He has been a Steering Board member of the Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES USA), and is past recipient of the Founders Award from that organisation. He has served on many national and international committees (including for IEEE and IEE, EUROCAE and ARINC). He was a founder member of the EPSRC Communications College. Professor Brown is a frequent invited lecturer on antennas and related topics, most recently including application of such techniques to Ultra Wide Band communications. He is a listed expert on UWB systems by the Paris Ultra Wide Band Organisation (http://timederivative.com/pubs.html). Prof Brown is a Fellow of the IEE and the IMA and is a Charted Engineer and Mathematician.

David J.Edwards has been an academic for 17 years after 12 years spent in the industry (BritishTelecom). He has a strong record of innovation in communications systems, electromagnetic measurements, ground probing radar and subsurface imaging radar. He has authored or co-authored in excess of 200 publications in his time as an academic. He has been in receipt of a number of awards and prizes (IEE Prize for Innovation, NPL Metrology award, IEE Mountbatten Premium (2 papers) and IEEE Neil Sheppy prize) for his work and has been extremely well supported by funding from research councils, industry and government agencies. He has a track record of wide collaboration within theUKand internationally. Prof. Edwards is serving and has served on a range of international committees in communications and related fields. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

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