Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators
This book examines noise phenomena in linear and nonlinear high-frequency circuits from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The authors explore important noise mechanisms using equivalent sources and analytical and numerical methods. Readers learn how to manage electrical noise to improve the sensitivity and resolution of communication, navigation, measurement, and other electronic systems.
Noise in High-Frequency Circuits and Oscillators has its origins in a university course taught by the authors. As a result, it is thoroughly classroom-tested and carefully structured to facilitate learning. Readers are given a solid foundation in the basics that allows them to proceed to more advanced and sophisticated themes such as computer-aided noise simulation of high-frequency circuits.
Following a discussion of mathematical and system-oriented fundamentals, the book covers:
* Noise of linear one- and two-ports
* Measurement of noise parameters
* Noise of diodes and transistors
* Parametric circuits
* Noise in nonlinear circuits
* Noise in oscillators
* Quantization noise
Each chapter contains a set of numerical and analytical problems that enable readers to apply their newfound knowledge to real-world problems. Solutions are provided in the appendices.
With their many years of classroom experience, the authors have designed a book that is ideal for graduate students in engineering and physics. It also addresses key issues and points to solutions for engineers working in the burgeoning satellite and wireless communications industries.
1 Mathematical and System-oriented Fundamentals.
1.2 hlathematical basics for the description of noise signals.
1.3 Transfer of noise signals by linear networks.
2 Noise of Linear One- and Two-Ports.
2.1 Noise of one-ports.
2.2 Noise of two-ports.
2.3 Noise figure of linear two-ports.
3 Measurement of Noise Parameters.
3.1 Measurement of noise power.
3.2 Measurement of the correlation function and the crossspectrum.
3.3 Illustrative interpretation of the correlation.
3.4 Measurement of the equivalent noise temperature of a one-port.
3.5 Special radiometer circuits.
3.6 Measurement of the noise figure.
3.7 Measurement of minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance.
3.8 De-embedding of the noise parameters.
3.9 Alternative determination of the noise temperature of a one-port.
4 Noise of Diodes and Transistors.
4.1 Shot noise.
4.2 Shot noise of Schottky diodes.
4.3 Shot noise of pn-diodes.
4.4 Noise of PIK diodes.
4.5 Noise equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors.
4.6 Noise of field effect transistors.
5 Parametric Circuits.
5.1 Parametric theory.
5.2 Down converters with Schottky diodes.
5.3 Mixer circuits.
5.4 Noise equivalent circuit of pumped Schottky diodes.
5.5 Noise figure of down-converters with Schottky diodes.
5.6 Mixers with field effect transistors.
5.7 Noise figure of down converters with field effect transistors.
5.8 Harmonic mixers.
5.9 Noise figure of harmonic mixers.
5.10 Noise figure measurements of down converters.
5.11 Noise figure of a parametric amplifier.
5.12 Up-converters with varactors.
6 Noise in Non-linear Circuits.
6.2 Problems with the noise characterization of non-linear two-ports.
6.4 Amplitude and phase noise.
6.5 Normalized single sideband noise power density.
6.6 Amplitude and phase noise of amplifiers.
6.7 Transformation of amplitude and phase noise in linear two-ports.
6.8 Amplitude and phase noise in non-linear two-ports.
6.9 Measurement of the phase noise.
7 Noise in Oscillators.
7.1 Two-port and one-port oscillators.
7.2 Oscillation condition.
7.3 Noise analysis.
7.4 Stability condition.
7.5.1 Two-port oscillator with transmission resonator.
7.5.2 One-port oscillator with a series resonator.
7.5.3 Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO).
7.6 Noise in phase-locked loop circuits.
7.7 Measurement of the oscillator noise.
7.7.1 Amplitude noise.
7.7.2 Phase noise.
7.7.3 Injection locking.
7.8 Disturbing effects of oscillator noise.
7.8.1 Heterodyne reception.
7.8.2 Sensitivity of a spectrum analyzer.
7.8.3 Distance measurements.
7.8.4 Velocity measurements.
7.8.5 Transmission of information by a frequency or.
phase modulated carrier signal.
7.8.6 Measurement system for the microwave gas spectroscopy.
8 Quantization Noise.
8.1 Quantization noise of analog-to-digital converters.
8.2 Quantization noise of fractional divider phase locked loops.
8.2.1 Application of the Sigma-Delta modulation.
8.2.2 Multiple integration.
8.2.3 Identity of the cascade and the chain circuit.
8.2.4 Chain circuit with weighting coefficients.
8.2.5 Transient behavior of a fractional logic circuit.
8.2.6 Fractional divider without a PLL.
Appendix A Solutions to the problems of Chapter 1.
Appendix B Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 2.
Appendix C Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 3.
Appendix D Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 4.
Appendix E Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 5.
Appendix F Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 6.
Appendix G Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 7.
Appendix H Solutions to the Problems of Chapter 8.
ILONA ROLFES, PhD, is Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of Universität Hannover.
HEINZ-JÜRGEN SIWERIS, PhD, is Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Applied Science in Regensburg.