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Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-04809-2
720 pages
November 2008
Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects, 3rd Edition (0470048093) cover image
One of the leading references on the design of a building's environmental controls has just gotten better. For years, Heating, Cooling, Lighting has supplied architects and students with the strategies needed for initial design decisions for building systems. The book looks at how to design the form of the building itself to take advantage of natural heating, cooling, and lighting and how to best utilize active mechanical equipment to satisfy the needs not provided by nature. This new edition has been expanded and updated to reflect the latest codes, standards, and energy-efficiency rating systems.
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FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION xiii

FOREWORD TO THE THIRD EDITION xv

PREFACE xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

1 HEATING, COOLING, AND LIGHTING AS FORM-GIVERS IN ARCHITECTURE 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Vernacular and Regional Architecture 3

1.3 Formal Architecture 5

1.4 The Architectural Approach 7

1.5 Dynamic versus Static Buildings 10

1.6 Passive Survivability 10

1.7 Energy and Architecture 10

1.8 Architecture and Heating, Cooling, and Lighting 11

1.9 Conclusion 12

2 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN 13

2.1 Easter Island: Learning from the Past 14

2.2 Sustainable Design 14

2.3 Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design 16

2.4 The Green Movement 16

2.5 Population and Sustainability 17

2.6 Growth 18

2.7 Exponential Growth 18

2.8 The Amoeba Analogy 19

2.9 Supply versus Effi ciency 20

2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues 20

2.11 Climate Change 21

2.12 The Global Greenhouse 23

2.13 The Ozone Hole 24

2.14 Effi ciency 24

2.15 Energy Sources 25

2.16 Ancient Greece: A Historical Example 25

2.17 Nonrenewable Energy Sources 25

2.18 Renewable Energy Sources 29

2.19 Hydrogen 36

2.20 Conclusion 38

3 BASIC PRINCIPLES 41

3.1 Introduction 42

3.2 Heat 42

3.3 Sensible Heat 42

3.4 Latent Heat 43

3.5 Evaporative Cooling 43

3.6 Convection 44

3.7 Transport 44

3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums 45

3.9 Radiation 45

3.10 Greenhouse Effect 46

3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface 47

3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature 48

3.13 Heat Flow 48

3.14 Heat Sink 49

3.15 Heat Capacity 49

3.16 Thermal Resistance 50

3.17 Heat-Flow Coeffi cient 50

3.18 Time Lag 50

3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass 51

3.20 Energy Conversion 51

3.21 Combined Heat and Power 52

3.22 Fuel Cells 52

3.23 Embodied Energy 53

3.24 Conclusion 54

4 THERMAL COMFORT 55

4.1 Biological Machine 56

4.2 Thermal Barriers 57

4.3 Metabolic Rate 59

4.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment 60

4.5 The Psychrometric Chart 60

4.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 62

4.7 Heat Content of Air 63

4.8 Thermal Comfort 64

4.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone 65

4.10 Clothing and Comfort 66

4.11 Strategies 67

4.12 Conclusion 68

5 CLIMATE 71

5.1 Introduction 72

5.2 Climate 72

5.3 Microclimate 75

5.4 Climatic Anomalies 77

5.5 Climate Regions of the United States 78

5.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables 79

5.7 Additional Climate Information 87

5.8 Climate Information for Other Countries 87

Climate Data Tables 88

5.9 Design Strategies 122

6 SOLAR GEOMETRY 131

6.1 Introduction 132

6.2 The Sun 132

6.3 Elliptical Orbit 132

6.4 Tilt of the Earth’s Axis 133

6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle 134

6.6 Winter 135

6.7 The Sun Revolves Around the Earth! 135

6.8 Sky Dome 135

6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles 136

6.10 Solar Time 137

6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams 137

6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams 139

6.13 Sun-Path Models 141

6.14 Solar Site-Evaluation Tools 142

6.15 Heliodons 142

6.16 Sundials for Model Testing 143

6.17 Conceptually Clear Heliodons 145

6.18 Conclusion 145

7 PASSIVE SOLAR 147

7.1 History 148

7.2 Solar in America 148

7.3 Solar Hemicycle 150

7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar 151

7.5 Passive Solar 152

7.6 Direct-Gain Systems 153

7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems 156

7.8 Example 158

7.9 Trombe Wall Systems 158

7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems 163

7.11 Example 163

7.12 Sunspaces 163

7.13 Balcomb House 164

7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines 166

7.15 Comparison of the Three Main Passive Heating Systems 168

7.16 General Considerations for Passive Solar Systems 168

7.17 Heat-Storage Materials 171

7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems 172

7.19 Conclusion 174

8 PHOTOVOLTAICS AND ACTIVE SOLAR 177

8.1 Introduction 178

8.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source 178

8.3 History of PV 178

8.4 The PV Cell 180

8.5 Types of PV Systems 181

8.6 Balance of System Equipment 182

8.7 Building-Integrated Photovoltaics 182

8.8 Orientation and Tilt 184

8.9 Roofs Clad with PV 185

8.10 Facades Clad with PV 186

8.11 Glazing and PV 186

8.12 PV Shading Devices 188

8.13 PV: Part of the Second Tier 188

8.14 Sizing a PV System 189

8.15 Finding the PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method 190

8.16 Design Guidelines 191

8.17 The Promise of PV 192

8.18 The Cost Effectiveness of PV and Active Solar Applications 192

8.19 Active Solar Swimming-Pool Heating 195

8.20 Solar Hot-Water Systems 195

8.21 Solar Hot-Air Collectors 197

8.22 Designing an Active Solar System 198

8.23 Active/Passive Solar Systems 200

8.24 Preheating of Ventilation Air 201

8.25 The Future of Active Solar 204

8.26 Conclusion 204

9 SHADING AND LIGHT COLORS 207

9.1 History of Shading 208

9.2 Shading 213

9.3 Fixed Exterior Shading Devices 217

9.4 Movable Shading Devices 219

9.5 Shading Periods of the Year 223

9.6 Horizontal Overhangs 227

9.7 Design of Horizontal Overhangs—Basic Method 228

9.8 Shading Design for South Windows 230

9.9 Design Guidelines for Fixed South Overhangs 230

9.10 Design Guidelines for Movable South Overhangs 232

9.11 Shading for East and West Windows 233

9.12 Design of East and West Horizontal Overhangs 235

9.13 Design of Slanted Vertical Fins 236

9.14 Design of Fins on North Windows 236

9.15 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices 237

9.16 Special Shading Strategies 238

9.17 Shading Outdoor Spaces 241

9.18 Using Physical Models for Shading Design 244

9.19 Glazing as the Shading Element 247

9.20 Interior Shading Devices 249

9.21 Shading Coefficient and Solar Heat-Gain Coefficient 250

9.22 Reflection from Roofs and Walls 251

9.23 Conclusion 253

10 PASSIVE COOLING 257

10.1 Introduction to Cooling 258

10.2 Historical and Indigenous Use of Passive Cooling 258

10.3 Passive Cooling Systems 267

10.4 Comfort Ventilation versus Night-Flush Cooling 267

10.5 Basic Principles of Air Flow 267

10.6 Air Flow Through Buildings 271

10.7 Example of Ventilation Design 278

10.8 Comfort Ventilation 281

10.9 Night-Flush Cooling 282

10.10 Smart Facades and Roofs 284

10.11 Radiant Cooling 285

10.12 Evaporative Cooling 287

10.13 Cool Towers 289

10.14 Earth Cooling 290

10.15 Dehumidifi cation with a Desiccant 293

10.16 Conclusion 293

11 SITE DESIGN, COMMUNITY PLANNING, AND LANDSCAPING 295

11.1 Introduction 296

11.2 Site Selection 299

11.3 Solar Access 300

11.4 Shadow Patterns 305

11.5 Site Planning 308

11.6 Solar Zoning 312

11.7 Physical Models 315

11.8 Wind and Site Design 317

11.9 Plants and Vegetation 323

11.10 Green Roofs 328

11.11 Lawns 331

11.12 Landscaping 332

11.13 Community Design 338

11.14 Cooling Our Communities 340

11.15 Conclusion 340

12 LIGHTING 343

12.1 Introduction 344

12.2 Light 346

12.3 Reflectance/Transmittance 349

12.4 Color 350

12.5 Vision 353

12.6 Perception 354

12.7 Performance of a Visual Task 357

12.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task 358

12.9 Illumination Level 359

12.10 Brightness Ratios 361

12.11 Glare 362

12.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination 366

12.13 Activity Needs 367

12.14 Biological Needs 370

12.15 Light and Health 373

12.16 The Poetry of Light 373

12.17 Rules for Lighting Design 374

12.18 Career Possibilities 375

12.19 Conclusion 375

13 DAYLIGHTING 379

13.1 History of Daylighting 380

13.2 Why Daylighting? 384

13.3 The Nature of Daylight 386

13.4 Conceptual Model 389

13.5 Illumination and the Daylight Factor 390

13.6 Light without Heat? 391

13.7 Cool Daylight 392

13.8 Goals of Daylighting 393

13.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies 394

13.10 Basic Window Strategies 397

13.11 Advanced Window Strategies 401

13.12 Window Glazing Materials 406

13.13 Top Lighting 407

13.14 Skylight Strategies 408

13.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops 412

13.16 Special Daylighting Techniques 418

13.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs 422

13.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting 424

13.19 Physical Modeling 426

13.20 Guidelines for Daylighting 431

13.21 Conclusion 431

14 ELECTRIC LIGHTING 433

14.1 History of Light Sources 434

14.2 Light Sources 435

14.3 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps 437

14.4 Discharge Lamps 438

14.5 Fluorescent Lamps 439

14.6 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (Mercury, Metal Halide, and High Pressure Sodium) 441

14.7 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources 443

14.8 Solid State Lighting 443

14.9 Luminaires 445

14.10 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffl es 445

14.11 Lighting Systems 448

14.12 Remote-Source Lighting Systems 450

14.13 Visualizing Light Distribution 451

14.14 Architectural Lighting 454

14.15 Outdoor Lighting 456

14.16 Emergency Lighting 457

14.17 Controls 457

14.18 Maintenance 458

14.19 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design 458

14.20 Conclusion 459

15 THE THERMAL ENVELOPE: KEEPING WARM AND STAYING COOL 461

15.1 Background 462

15.2 Heat Loss 463

15.3 Heat Gain 465

15.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo) 466

15.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning 467

15.6 Insulation Materials 470

15.7 The Thermal Envelope 475

15.8 Heat Bridges 482

15.9 Windows 484

15.10 Movable Insulation 489

15.11 Insulating Effect from Thermal Mass 489

15.12 Earth Sheltering 491

15.13 Infiltration and Ventilation 496

15.14 Moisture Control 497

15.15 Radon 501

15.16 Appliances 501

15.17 Conclusion 502

16 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT FOR HEATING AND COOLING 505

16.1 Introduction 506

16.2 Heating 506

16.3 Thermal Zones 509

16.4 Heating Systems 509

16.5 Electric Heating 511

16.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating 512

16.7 Hot-Air Systems 515

16.8 Cooling 518

16.9 Refrigeration Cycles 519

16.10 Heat Pumps 521

16.11 Geo-Exchange 522

16.12 Cooling Systems 523

16.13 Air Conditioning for Small Buildings 527

16.14 Air Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings 530

16.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems 538

16.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers) 539

16.17 Ventilation 543

16.18 Energy-Effi cient Ventilation Systems 544

16.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal 547

16.20 Special Systems 547

16.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment 547

16.22 Conclusion 551

17 CASE STUDIES 555

17.1 Introduction 556

17.2 The Real Goods Solar Living Center 556

17.3 The Urban Villa 562

17.4 The Emerald People’s Utility District Headquarters 565

17.5 Colorado Mountain College 567

17.6 Gregory Bateson Building 571

17.7 Commerzbank 578

17.8 Phoenix Central Library 582

APPENDIX A HORIZONTAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 587

APPENDIX B VERTICAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 599

APPENDIX C SOLAR ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH ANGLES 611

APPENDIX D METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE HEIGHT OF TREES, BUILDINGS, ETC. 617

D.1 Proportional-Shadow Method 617

D.2 Similar-Triangle Method 617

D.3 45 a nRight-Triangle Method 618

D.4 Trigonometric Method 618

D.5 Tools for Measuring Vertical Angles 619

APPENDIX E SUNDIALS 621

APPENDIX F SUN-PATH MODELS 631

F.1 Introduction 631

F.2 Directions for Constructing a Sun-Path Model 631

APPENDIX G COMPUTER SOFTWARE USEFUL FOR THE SCHEMATIC DESIGN STAGE 641

G.1 Introduction 641

G.2 Ecotect 641

G.3 Energy Scheming 3.0 641

G.4 Energy-10™ 641

G.5 UCLA Energy Design Tools 642

APPENDIX H SITE EVALUATION TOOLS 645

H.1 Introduction 645

H.2 The Solar Pathfi nder 645

H.3 The Suneye™ 645

H.4 The Sun Locator 646

H.5 Do-it-Yourself Solar Site Evaluator 646

APPENDIX I HELIODONS 653

I.1 Introduction 653

I.2 The Sun Simulator Heliodon 653

I.3 The Sun Emulator Heliodon 653

I.4 The Tabletop Heliodon 654

I.5 The Bowling Ball Heliodon 657

I.6 Other Sources of Heliodons 659

APPENDIX J EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY-CONSCIOUS DESIGN 661

APPENDIX K RESOURCES 663

K.1 Books 663

K.2 Journals 663

K.3 Videos 663

K.4 CD-ROMs 664

K.5 Organizations 664

APPENDIX L TABLES OF R-VALUES 667

L.1 R-Values for Typical Building Materials 668

L.2 R-Values of Air Spaces 670

L.3 Thermal Resistances for Slab Doors 670

APPENDIX M CONVERSION FACTORS BETWEEN THE INCH-POUND (I-P) AND SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL (SI) SYSTEMS 671

APPENDIX N THE WATER TABLE FOR VENTILATION STUDIES 675

N.1 Introduction 675

N.2 Construction of a Water Table 675

BIBLIOGRAPHY 679

INDEX 685

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Norbert Lechner is Professor Emeritus in the College of Architecture, Design, and Construction at Auburn University and was a registered architect in the state of Alabama. His articles have appeared in Architectural Lighting and Solar Today. In addition to writing, he has lectured and held workshops in the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
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  • Many new topics, such as "cool" coatings, cool towers, smart facades, green roofs, heat bridges, passive sustainability, LED lamps, and vacuum insulation
  • Expanded section on the thermal envelope

  • Numerous examples of recent exemplary buildings

  • SI units displayed in addition to the I-P units

  • More than 1,400 helpful photographs and line drawings

  • A companion Web site with image bank

 

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