Contractors Guide to Green Building Construction: Management, Project Delivery, Documentation, and Risk Reduction
April 2008, ©2008
Written specifically for contractors, this "how-to" book enables you to meet the challenges of green building construction. You'll discover how constructing environmentally friendly, sustainable buildings influences project management, delivery, documentation, and risk. Moreover, the book guides you through these important considerations at all phases of a green construction project, including:
- Bidding and contracting
- Managing green design when the contractor works as a design builder
- Construction management
- Project commissioning and closeout
This book is endorsed by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) and was written with the assistance and advice of a specially assembled AGC task force. With a focus on the green building process from the contractor's viewpoint, the book avoids endorsing any one green building rating system in favor of presenting the business fundamentals common to them all.
Throughout the presentation, flowcharts and other features offer working tools for successfully managing green construction projects. Plus, real-world case studies developed through discussions with the actual contractors involved help you understand exactly what to expect and how to best manage constructing a green building. In short, this is one book that you need to have on hand to be a part of the rapidly growing green building movement.
1.2 Sustainable Development: What Is It?
1.3 Green Building Defined.
1.4 Green Construction: Reactive or Proactive?
1.5 Green Construction without Green Design?
1.6 What is Green Construction?
1.7 Green is Lean.
1.8 The Green Contractor.
1.9 Advantages of Being Green.
1.10 Overview of This Book.
CHAPTER 2. ELEMENTS OF GREEN CONSTRUCTION.
2.2 Green Building Evaluation Systems.
2.3 LEEDTM Certification.
2.3.1 U.S. Green Building Council.
2.3.2 LEEDTM Rating Systems.
2.3.3 LEED-NC Certification Process.
2.3.4 Information on the LEEDTM Rating System.
2.3.5 Projects Not Products are LEEDTM Certified.
2.3.6 LEEDTM Accredited Professionals.
2.4 Green GlobesTM Certification.
2.4.1 Origins of Green GlobesTM.
2.4.2 Green Building Initiative.
2.4.3 Green GlobesTM Rating System.
2.4.4 Green GlobesTM Self Assessment.
2.4.5 Green GlobesTM Certification.
2.4.6 Green GlobesTM Verification Process.
2.4.7I nformation on the Green GlobesTM Rating System.
2.5 Additional Rating systems.
CHAPTER 3. UNDERSTANDING GREEN PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.
3.2 Impact of Green Requirements.
3.3 Green Project Delivery.
3.3.1 Importance of Green Project Delivery.
3.3.2 What is a Project Delivery System?
3.3.3 Project Delivery System Categories.
3.3.4 Construction Manager/General Contractor.
3.3.5 Design Build.
3.4 Green Design-Bid-Build.
3.5 Green Construction Manager at Risk.
3.6 Green Design Build.
3.6.1 Design-Build Overview.
3.6.2 One-Stage Design-Build Process.
3.6.3 Two-Stage Design-Build Process.
3.6.4 Design-Build Variations.
3.6.5 Managing The Green Design Process.
3.7 Contractor Selection Methods.
3.7.1 Selection Methods.
3.7.2 Price-Based Selection.
3.7.3 Qualifications-Based Selection.
3.7.4 "Best Value" Selection.
3.8 Green Scope of Work Impact.
3.9 Identifying Green Requirements.
3.10.1 Specifications Defined.
3.10.2 Specification Types.
3.10.3 Conflicting Material Specifications.
3.10.4 Mixed Green Specifications.
3.11 CSI MasterFormatTM.
3.11.1 CSI MasterFormattm Background.
3.11.2 2004 MasterFormatTM Groups.
3.11.3 General Requirements Subgroup - Division 01.
3.11.4 Facility Construction Subgroup.
3.11.5 Facility Services Subgroup.
3.11.6 1995 CSI MasterFormatTM References.
3.11.7 A Word of Caution.
3.12 Green Requirements on Drawings.
CHAPTER 4. CONTRACTING FOR GREEN CONSTRUCTION.
4.2 Consult Your Advisors.
4.3 Contract Purpose.
4.4 Where Is The Risk?
4.5 Managing Green Construction Risk.
4.5.1 Four Risk Management Methods.
4.5.2 Risk Retention.
4.5.3 Risk Reduction.
4.5.4 Risk Transfer.
4.5.5 Risk Avoidance.
4.6 Owner-Contractor Agreement.
4.7 Conditions of Contract.
4.7.1 General Conditions.
4.7.2 Supplemental Conditions.
4.7.3 Special Conditions.
4.7.4 Combined Supplemental & Special Conditions.
4.8 Drawings & Specifications.
4.10 Other Listed Documents.
4.11 Green Design-Build Requirements.
4.11.1 Design-Build Project Delivery.
4.11.2 Contract Documents.
4.11.3 Design-Build Risk.
4.11.4 Establish Measurable Design-Build Performance Requirements.
4.12 Order of Contract Document Precedence.
4.13 Insurance coverage on Green Projects.
4.14 Bonding Requirements on Green Projects.
CHAPTER 5. MANAGING GREEN DESIGN.
5.2 Designer Defined.
5.3 Design-Build as a Project Delivery System.
5.4 Design-Builder Defined.
5.5 Design-Build is a Team Effort.
5.5.1 Relationship Between Contractor & Designer.
5.5.2 Designer Organization.
5.6 What Makes A Successful Design-Build Project?
5.7 Understanding Owner Needs & Expectations.
5.7.1 Owner Needs & Expectations.
5.7.2 Owner’s Project Criteria.
5.7.3 Owner’s Project Criteria as a Contract Document.
5.7.4 Importance of Measurable Green Criteria.
5.7.5 Establishing Measurable Green Criteria.
5.7.6 Beware of Hidden Green Requirements & Conflicts.
5.7.7 Basis for Commissioning Plan.
5.8 Selecting a Designer.
5.8.1 Need for a Designer.
5.8.2 Defining the Design Firm’s Scope of Services.
5.8.3 Identifying & Selecting a Designer.
5.8.4 Professional Qualifications.
5.9 Contracting with the Designer.
5.9.1 Design Contract Scope.
5.9.2 Design Contract Requirements.
5.9.3 Design Contract Format.
5.9.4 Use of Purchase Orders.
5.9.5 Alignment Between Agreements.
5.10 Professional Liability Insurance.
5.10.1 Professional Liability Insurance Overview.
5.10.2 Need for Professional Liability Insurance.
5.10.3 Insurance Coverage Period.
5.10.4 Example Contractual Requirement for Professional Liability Insurance.
5.11 The Design Process.
5.11.1 Six Design Phases.
5.11.2 Programming Phase.
5.11.3 Schematic Design Phase.
5.11.4 Design Development Phase.
5.11.5 Construction Documents Phase.
5.11.6 Construction Phase.
5.11.7 Commissioning Phase.
5.11.8 Use of the Design Phases.
5.12 Perform Regular Design Reviews.
5.12.1 Need for Regular Design Reviews.
5.12.2 Types of Design Reviews.
5.12.3 Internal Design Reviews.
5.12.4 Owner Design Reviews.
5.13 Managing the Design Process.
5.13.1 Establishing Design Documentation Requirements.
5.13.2 Design Change & Modification Procedure.
5.13.3 Plan & Schedule the Design Process.
CHAPTER 6. GREEN SUBCONTRACTING.
6.2 Green Subcontracting.
6.3 Why Are Subcontractors Important On Green Projects?
6.4 Specialty Contractor Prequalification.
6.5 Defining Subcontractor Scope.
6.6 Basis for Green Scope of Work.
6.7 Establishing Green Criteria.
6.8 Green Processes & Procedures.
6.9 Educate Specialty Contractors.
6.10 Subcontractor Selection.
6.11 Subcontract Terms & Condition.
6.11.1 Current Model Contract Documents.
6.11.2 Subcontract Documents.
6.11.3 Green Flow-Through Requirements.
6.11.4 Implicit Green Requirements.
6.11.5 Subcontractor Green Submittals.
6.11.6 Subcontractor Design Management Responsibilities.
6.11.7 System Startup & Commissioning.
6.11.8 Early Startup of Building Systems.
6.12 Training Subcontractors on Site.
CHAPTER 7. GREEN PROCUREMENT.
7.2 Building Product Life Cycle.
7.2.1 Building Product Life Cycle.
7.2.2 Raw Material Extraction/Harvesting.
7.2.3 Raw Material Transport.
7.2.4 Raw Material Conversion.
7.2.5 Converted Material Transport.
7.2.6 Product Manufacture.
7.2.7 Product Transport.
7.2.8 Building Product Installation.
7.2.9 Building Product Use.
7.2.10 Building Product Removal.
7.2.11 Building Product Disposition.
7.2.12 Transport Salvaged Product.
7.2.13 Refurbish Product.
7.2.14 Transport Refurbished Product.
7.2.15 Recover Material.
7.2.16 Transport Recovered Material.
7.2.17 Landfill/Incinerate Waste.
7.3 Where are the Green Building Product Requirements?
7.3.1 Specific Requirements.
7.3.2 General Performance Requirements.
7.3.3 Partial Performance Requirements.
7.3.4 Need to Understand Green Building Product Requirements.
7.4 S ubcontractor Procurement Responsibility.
7.5 Green Building Product Characteristics.
7.5.1 Green Building Product Characteristics.
7.5.2 Resource Efficiency.
7.5.3 Waste Minimization.
7.5.4 Indoor Air Quality.
7.5.5 Energy Efficiency.
7.5.6 Water Conservation.
7.6 Green Building Product Screening Process.
7.6.1 Screening Process Steps.
7.6.2 Step #1: Research.
7.6.3 Step#2: Evaluate.
7.6.4 Step #3: Select.
7.7 Green Procurement Process.
7.8 Green Building Product Requirements Analysis.
7.8.1 Green Building Product Requirements Analysis .
7.8.2 Review & Identify Green Building Product Requirements.
7.8.3 General Green Requirement’s Path.
7.8.4 Mixed Green Requirement’s Path.
7.8.5 Specific Green Requirement’s Path.
7.8.6 Prepare & Distribute Bid Package.
7.9 Supplier RFQ Development.
7.9.1 Supplier RFQ Development Process.
7.9.2 Identify Product Requirements.
7.9.3 Performance Specification Path.
7.9.4 Descriptive Specification Path.
7.9.5 Prescriptive Specification Path.
7.9.6 Identify Suppliers.
7.9.7 Prepare & Issue RFQ.
7.10 Product Procurement Process.
7.11 Establish a Procurement Procedure.
CHAPTER 8. CONSTRUCTING A GREEN PROJECT.
8.2 Green Construction Process.
8.3 Green Construction Planning & Scheduling.
8.4 Workforce Conservation.
8.4.1 Need to Conserve The Workforce.
8.4.4 Use of Local Workforce.
8.5 Material Conservation.
8.5.1 Material Conservation.
8.5.2 Material Conservation Planning.
8.5.3 Material Conservation Strategies.
8.5.4 Build with Standard Material Dimensions.
8.5.5 Fabricate Nonstandard Material Dimensions.
8.5.6 Prefabricate Material Assemblies.
8.5.7 Material Shipping.
8.6 Site Layout & Use.
8.6.1 Reduced Site Disturbance & Green Construction.
8.6.2 Set Construction Boundaries.
8.6.3 Restrict Vehicle & Equipment Movement.
8.6.4 Establish Trailer, Storage, & Laydown Areas.
8.6.5 Prevent Site Erosion & Sediment Runoff.
8.6.6 Manage Storm Water & Wastewater.
8.7 Construction Waste Management.
8.8 Material Storage & Protection.
8.9 Providing a Healthy Work Environment.
8.10 Creating an Environmentally-Friendly Jobsite.
8.11 Construction Equipment Selection & Operation.
8.12 Documenting Green Construction.
CHAPTER 9. GREEN PROJECT COMMISSIONING & CLOSEOUT.
9.2 Building Commissioning Purpose & Objectives.
9.3 Building Commissioning Defined.
9.4 Owner Building Commissioning Benefits.
9.4.1 Building Commissioning Benefits.
9.4.2 Verified Equipment & System Operation.
9.4.3 Established Baseline System Performance.
9.4.4 Reduced Operating Costs.
9.4.5 Improved Occupant Well being.
9.4.6 Increased System Reliability & Maintainability.
9.5 Commissioning As A Quality Assurance Program.
9.5.1 Contractor Building Commissioning Benefits.
9.5.2 What Is Quality?
9.5.3 Quality Control.
9.5.4 Commissioning as a Quality Assurance Program.
9.5.5 Quality Planning.
9.6 Contractor’s Responsibility for Building Performance.
9.6.1I mportance Of Understanding Responsibility for Building Performance.
9.6.2 Determining Responsibility for Building Performance.
9.6.3 Design-Bid-Build: Descriptive or Prescriptive Specification.
9.6.4 Design-Bid-build: Performance Specification.
9.6.5 Design build.
9.6.6 Draw Build or Design Assist.
9.7 Building Commissioning Extent & Timing.
9.8 Project Commissioning Requirements.
9.8.1 Project Commissioning Requirements.
9.8.2 Contractor Needs To Understand Commissioning Requirements.
9.8.3 Defining Subcontractor Scopes of Work.
9.8.4 1995 CSI MasterFormatTM.
9.8.5 2004 CSI MasterFormatTM.
9.8.6 Division 25 - Integrated Automation.
9.9 Basic Building Commissioning Process.
9.9.1 Basic Building Commissioning Process.
9.9.2 Equipment Commissioning.
9.9.3 Subsystem Commissioning.
9.9.4 System Commissioning.
9.9.5 Integrated Systems Commissioning.
9.9.6 Building Commissioning.
9.10 Commissioning Authority.
9.10.1 What is the Commissioning Authority’s Role?
9.10.2 Who Can Be the Commissioning Authority.
9.10.3 Contractor as Commissioning Authority.
9.10.4 Commissioning Authority Qualifications.
9.10.5 Commissioning Authority Responsibilities.
9.11 Commissioning Plan.
9.12 Commissioning Team.
9.13 Commissioning Activities.
9.14 Prefunctional Equipment Testing.
9.14.1 What Is Prefunctional Equipment Testing?
9.14.2 Who Develops The Prefunctional Testing Requirements?
9.14.3 How Is Prefunctional Testing Performed?
9.14.4 Prefunctional Equipment Testing Documentation.
9.15 Control system Checkout & Testing.
9.16 Testing, Adjusting, & Balancing.
9.17 Functional Testing.
9.17.1 What Is Functional Testing?
9.17.2 Methods Of Functional Testing.
9.18 Operational Training.
9.19 Commissioning & Closeout Submittals.
9.20 Project Functional Completion.
9.21 Working with an Outside Commissioning Authority.
9.21.1 Contractor Interaction with Outside Commissioning Authority.
9.21.2 Understand the Commissioning Requirements.
9.21.3 Subcontractor Commissioning Requirements.
9.21.4 Interaction with The Commissioning Authority.
9.21.5 Finalizing the Commissioning Plan.
9.21.6 Ongoing Commissioning Authority Interaction.
9.21.7 Equipment & System Documentation & Submittals.
9.21.8 Create a Commissioning File.
9.21.9 Preparation & Submission of O&M Manuals.
APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY OF TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS.
APPENDIX B. REFFERENCE.
Thomas E. Glavinich, DE, PE, is Associate Professor for the Schools of Engineering and Architecture and Urban Design at The University of Kansas. Prior to joining The University of Kansas, he worked in the design and construction of commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities. Mr. Glavinich is the past president of the ASCE Architectural Engineering Institute and a Fellow of the Institute.
Associated General Contractors of America, founded in 1918, is the largest and oldest con-struction trade association in the U.S., comprised of over 33,000 members that include general contractors and specialty contractors as well as suppliers and service providers.
- The only book on green building construction specifically written for contractors, and fully endorsed by the Associated General Contractors of America
- Provides honest analysis of the various systems, and how they compare and what impact they have on project management and performance from the contractor's POV
- Covers a range of green building systems/standards including LEED, AIA COTE, Green Communities Initiative, EnergyStar, Green Globes, BREEAM, Sustainable Federal Buildings Database, and BEES
- Includes dozens of ready-to-use checklists and worksheets to assist in analyzing and managing green projects
- Presents dozens of real-world case studies and interviews with construction professionals providing first-hand experience and tips
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