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Aircraft Fuel Systems

ISBN: 978-0-470-05708-7
366 pages
June 2009
Aircraft Fuel Systems (0470057084) cover image
All aspects of fuel products and systems including fuel handling, quantity gauging and management functions for both commercial (civil) and military applications.

The fuel systems on board modern aircraft are multi-functional, fully integrated complex networks. They are designed to provide a proper and reliable management of fuel resources throughout all phases of operation, notwithstanding changes in altitude or speed, as well as to monitor system functionality and advise the flight crew of any operational anomalies that may develop.

  • Collates together a wealth of information on fuel system design that is currently disseminated throughout the literature.
  • Authored by leading industry experts from Airbus and Parker Aerospace.
  • Includes chapters on basic system functions, features and functions unique to military aircraft, fuel handling, fuel quantity gauging and management, fuel systems safety and fuel systems design and development.
  • Accompanied by a companion website housing a MATLAB/SIMULINK model of a modern aircraft fuel system that allows the user to set up flight conditions, investigate the effects of equipment failures and virtually fly preset missions.

Aircraft Fuel Systems provides a timely and invaluable resource for engineers, project and programme managers in the equipment supply and application communities, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students of mechanical and aerospace engineering. It constitutes an invaluable addition to the established Wiley Aerospace Series.

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Acknowledgements xiii

List of Acronyms xv

Series Preface xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Review of Fuel Systems Issues 2

1.2 The Fuel System Design and Development Process 11

1.3 Fuel System Examples and Future Technologies 15

1.4 Terminology 15

2 Fuel System Design Drivers 19

2.1 Design Drivers 21

2.2 Identification and Mitigation of Safety Risks 27

3 Fuel Storage 31

3.1 Tank Geometry and Location Issues for Commercial Aircraft 32

3.2 Operational Considerations 36

3.3 Fuel Tank Venting 41

3.4 Military Aircraft Fuel Storage Issues 45

3.5 Maintenance Considerations 49

4 Fuel System Functions of Commercial Aircraft 53

4.1 Refueling and Defueling 54

4.2 Engine and APU Feed 59

4.3 Fuel Transfer 70

4.4 Fuel Jettison 73

4.5 Fuel Quantity Gauging 76

4.6 Fuel Management and Control 84

4.7 Ancillary Systems 93

5 Fuel System Functions of Military Aircraft and Helicopters 97

5.1 Refueling and Defueling 98

5.2 Engine and APU Feed 103

5.3 Fuel Transfer 104

5.4 Aerial Refueling 106

5.5 Fuel Measurement and Management Systems in Military Applications 112

5.6 Helicopter Fuel Systems 116

6 Fluid Mechanical Equipment 119

6.1 Ground Refueling and Defueling Equipment 120

6.2 Fuel Tank Venting and Pressurization Equipment 133

6.3 Aerial Refueling Equipment 137

6.4 Equipment Sizing 142

6.5 Fuel Pumps 143

7 Fuel Measurement and Management Equipment 157

7.1 Fuel Gauging Sensor Technology 158

7.2 Harnesses 195

7.3 Avionics Equipment 197

8 Fuel Properties 203

8.1 The Refinement Process 203

8.2 Fuel Specification Properties of Interest 205

8.3 Operational Considerations 209

9 Intrinsic Safety, Electro Magnetics and Electrostatics 215

9.1 Intrinsic Safety 216

9.2 Lightning 217

9.3 EMI/HIRF 221

10 Fuel Tank Inerting 225

10.1 Early Military Inerting Systems 225

10.2 Current Technology Inerting Systems 229

10.3 Design Considerations for Open Vent Systems 235

10.4 Operational Issues with Permeable Membrane Inerting Systems 236

11 Design Development and Certification 239

11.1 Evolution of the Design and Development Process 239

11.2 System Design and Development – a Disciplined Methodology 243

11.3 Program Management 248

11.4 Maturity Management 254

11.5 Installation Considerations 256

11.6 Modeling and Simulation 259

11.7 Certification 263

11.8 Fuel System Icing Tests 268

12 Fuel System Design Examples 271

12.1 The Bombardier Global Express 272

12.2 Embraer 170/190 Regional Jet 280

12.3 The Boeing 777Wide-Bodied Airliner 288

12.4 The Airbus A380Wide-Bodied Airliner 301

12.5 The Anglo-French Concorde 315

13 New and Future Technologies 327

13.1 Fuel Measurement and Management 327

13.2 Fluid Mechanical Equipment Technology 331

13.3 Aerial Refueling Operations 338

References 339

Index 341

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Aircraft Fuel SystemsVisit the companion website to access a MATLAB/SIMULINK model, featuring demonstrations of the typical equipment failures discussed in the book.
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