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Unmanned Aircraft Systems: UAVS Design, Development and Deployment

ISBN: 978-0-470-05819-0
372 pages
May 2010
Unmanned Aircraft Systems: UAVS Design, Development and Deployment (0470058196) cover image

Description

Unmanned Aircraft Systems delivers a much needed introduction to UAV System technology, taking an integrated approach that avoids compartmentalising the subject. Arranged in four sections, parts 1-3 examine the way in which various engineering disciplines affect the design, development and deployment of UAS. The fourth section assesses the future challenges and opportunities of UAS.

Technological innovation and increasingly diverse applications are two key drivers of the rapid expansion of UAS technology. The global defence budget for UAS procurement is expanding, and in the future the market for civilian UAVs is expected to outmatch that of the military. Agriculture, meteorology, conservation and border control are just a few of the diverse areas in which UAVs are making a significant impact; the author addresses all of these applications, looking at the roles and technology behind both fixed wing and rotorcraft UAVs.

Leading aeronautical consultant Reg Austin co-founded the Bristol International Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) conferences in 1979, which are now the longest-established UAS conferences worldwide. In addition, Austin has over 40 years' experience in the design and development of UAS. One of Austin's programmes, the "Sprite UAV System" has been deployed around the world and operated by day and night, in all weathers.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Acknowledgements xiv

Series Preface xv

Preface xvii

Units and Abbreviations xix

1 Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) 1

1.1 Some Applications of UAS 1

1.2 What are UAS? 3

1.3 Why Unmanned Aircraft? 5

1.4 The Systemic Basis of UAS 9

1.5 System Composition 9

References 15

Part 1 THE DESIGN OF UAV SYSTEMS 17

2 Introduction to Design and Selection of the System 19

2.1 Conceptual Phase 19

2.2 Preliminary Design 20

2.3 Detail Design 20

2.4 Selection of the System 20

3 Aerodynamics and Airframe Configurations 25

3.1 Lift-induced Drag 25

3.2 Parasitic Drag 26

3.3 Rotary-wing Aerodynamics 29

3.4 Response to Air Turbulence 32

3.5 Airframe Configurations 34

3.6 Summary 42

References 43

4 Characteristics of Aircraft Types 45

4.1 Long-endurance, Long-range Rˆole Aircraft 45

4.2 Medium-range, Tactical Aircraft 55

4.3 Close-range/Battlefield Aircraft 59

4.4 MUAV Types 66

4.5 MAV and NAV Types 68

4.6 UCAV 70

4.7 Novel Hybrid Aircraft Configurations 71

4.8 Research UAV 74

References 74

5 Design Standards and Regulatory Aspects 75

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 United Kingdom 76

5.3 Europe 88

5.4 United States of America 88

5.5 Conclusion 89

References 89

6 Aspects of Airframe Design 91

6.1 Scale Effects 91

6.2 Packaging Density 93

6.3 Aerodynamics 94

6.4 Structures and Mechanisms 95

6.5 Selection of power-plants 101

6.6 Modular Construction 106

6.7 Ancillary Equipment 112

References 112

7 Design for Stealth 113

7.1 Acoustic Signature 114

7.2 Visual Signature 115

7.3 Thermal Signature 116

7.4 Radio/Radar Signature 117

7.5 Examples in Practice 118

Reference 126

8 Payload Types 127

8.1 Nondispensable Payloads 128

8.2 Dispensable Payloads 141

Reference 141

9 Communications 143

9.1 Communication Media 143

9.2 Radio Communication 144

9.3 Mid-air Collision (MAC) Avoidance 151

9.4 Communications Data Rate and Bandwidth Usage 151

9.5 Antenna Types 152

References 154

10 Control and Stability 155

10.1 HTOL Aircraft 155

10.2 Helicopters 159

10.3 Convertible Rotor Aircraft 163

10.4 Payload Control 165

10.5 Sensors 165

10.6 Autonomy 167

References 167

11 Navigation 169

11.1 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) 169

11.2 TACAN 170

11.3 LORAN C 170

11.4 Inertial Navigation 171

11.5 Radio Tracking 171

11.6 Way-point Navigation 172

References 172

12 Launch and Recovery 173

12.1 Launch 173

12.2 Recovery 177

12.3 Summary 181

13 Control Stations 183

13.1 Control Station Composition 183

13.2 Open System Architecture 185

13.3 Mini-UAV ‘Laptop’ Ground Control Station 185

13.4 Close-range UAV Systems GCS 186

13.5 Medium- and Long-range UAV System GCS 190

13.6 Sea Control Stations (SCS) 195

13.7 Air Control Stations (ACS) 195

14 Support Equipment 197

14.1 Operating and Maintenance Manuals 197

14.2 Consumables 198

14.3 Replaceable Components 198

14.4 Vulnerable and On-condition Components 198

14.5 Tools 198

14.6 Subsidiary Equipment 199

15 Transportation 201

15.1 Micro-UAV 201

15.2 VTOL Close-range Systems 201

15.3 HTOL Close-range Systems 201

15.4 Medium-range Systems 202

15.5 MALE and HALE Systems 203

16 Design for Reliability 205

16.1 Determination of the Required Level of Reliability 206

16.2 Achieving Reliability 208

16.3 Reliability Data Presentation 210

16.4 Multiplexed Systems 212

16.5 Reliability by Design 213

16.6 Design for Ease of Maintenance 216

17 Design for Manufacture and Development 217

Part 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF UAV SYSTEMS 221

18 Introduction to System Development and Certification 223

18.1 System Development 223

18.2 Certification 224

18.3 Establishing Reliability 224

19 System Ground Testing 227

19.1 UAV Component Testing 227

19.2 UAV Sub-assembly and Sub-system Testing 228

19.3 Testing Complete UAV 230

19.4 Control Station Testing 236

19.5 Catapult Launch System Tests 237

19.6 Documentation 237

20 System In-flight Testing 239

20.1 Test Sites 239

20.2 Preparation for In-flight Testing 240

20.3 In-flight Testing 242

20.4 System Certification 243

Part 3 THE DEPLOYMENT OF UAV SYSTEMS 245

21 Operational Trials and Full Certification 247

21.1 Company Trials 247

21.2 Customer Trials and Sales Demonstrations 248

22 UAV System Deployment 249

22.1 Introduction 249

22.2 Network-centric Operations (NCO) 251

22.3 Teaming with Manned and Other Unmanned Systems 252

23 Naval Roles 253

23.1 Fleet Detection and Shadowing 254

23.2 Radar Confusion 254

23.3 Missile Decoy 255

23.4 Anti-submarine Warfare 255

23.5 Radio Relay 256

23.6 Port Protection 256

23.7 Over-beach Reconnaissance 257

23.8 Fisheries Protection 257

23.9 Detection of Illegal Imports 257

23.10 Electronic Intelligence 257

23.11 Maritime Surveillance 258

23.12 Summary 258

24 Army Roles 259

24.1 Covert Reconnaissance and Surveillance 259

24.2 Fall-of-shot Plotting 261

24.3 Target Designation by Laser 261

24.4 NBC Contamination Monitoring 263

24.5 IED and Landmine Detection and Destruction 266

24.6 Electronic Intelligence 266

24.7 Teaming of Manned and Unmanned Systems 266

24.8 System Mobility 266

24.9 Persistent Urban Surveillance 267

25 Air Force Roles 269

25.1 Long-range Reconnaissance and Strike 269

25.2 Airborne Early Warning 269

25.3 Electronic Intelligence 269

25.4 Pre-strike Radar and Anti-aircraft Systems Counter 270

25.5 Interception 270

25.6 Airfield Security 270

26 Civilian, Paramilitary and Commercial Roles 273

26.1 Aerial Photography* 273

26.2 Agriculture 273

26.3 Coastguard and Lifeboat Institutions 274

26.4 Customs and Excise 275

26.5 Conservation 275

26.6 Electricity Companies 275

26.7 Fire Services 276

26.8 Fisheries 276

26.9 Gas and Oil Supply Companies 277

26.10 Information Services 277

26.11 Local Civic Authorities 277

26.12 Meteorological Services* 277

26.13 Traffic Agencies 277

26.14 Ordnance Survey 278

26.15 Police Authorities* 278

26.16 Rivers Authorities and Water Boards 278

26.17 Survey Organisations 278

26.18 Communications Relay 278

26.19 Landmine Detection and Destruction 279

26.20 Other Applications 279

References 279

Part 4 UAS FUTURE 281

27 Future Prospects and Challenges 283

27.1 Introduction 283

27.2 Operation in Civilian Airspace 284

27.3 Power-plant Development 288

27.4 Developments in Airframe Configurations 292

27.5 Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence 299

27.6 Improvement in Communication Systems 301

References 301

28 UAV Systems Continuing Evolution 303

28.1 Introduction 303

28.2 Cruise Missiles 304

28.3 World War II Systems 305

28.4 The 1950s 306

28.5 The 1960s 306

28.6 The 1970s 308

28.7 The 1980s 309

28.8 The 1990s 311

28.9 The 2000s 312

28.10 The 2010s 315

28.11 Into the Future 316

Appendix A: UAS Organisations 319

A.1 Conferences 319

A.2 Industry Associations 319

A.3 Press Organisations 320

A.4 Useful Websites 320

A.5 Test Site Facilities 320

A.6 Regulators 321

Index 323

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Author Information

Leading aeronautical consultant Reg Austin co-founded the Bristol International Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) conferences in 1979, which are now the longest-established UAS conferences worldwide. In addition, Austin has over 40 years' experience in the design and development of UAS. One of Austin's programmes, the "Sprite UAV System" has been deployed around the world and operated by day and night, in all weathers.
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Reviews

“This book review is part of the Practical Industrial Applications series on Startup Business Book Reviews, providing quality book reviews of the business books that matter.”  (Will Roney, 3 September 2012)

"Overall, the book is a useful guide to the wide subject of unmanned aircraft and will sit comfortably on the shelves of both interested amateur and experienced professional." (RAeS Aerospace Professional magazine, 1 April 2011)

 

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