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Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-05996-8
546 pages
May 2008
Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration, 3rd Edition (0470059966) cover image

Description

This third edition of Aircraft Systems represents a timely update of the Aerospace Series’ successful and widely acclaimed flagship title. Moir and Seabridge present an in-depth study of the general systems of an aircraft – electronics, hydraulics, pneumatics, emergency systems and flight control to name but a few - that transform an aircraft shell into a living, functioning and communicating flying machine. Advances in systems technology continue to alloy systems and avionics, with aircraft support and flight systems increasingly controlled and monitored by electronics; the authors handle the complexities of these overlaps and interactions in a straightforward and accessible manner that also enhances synergy with the book’s two sister volumes, Civil Avionics Systems and Military Avionics Systems.

Aircraft Systems, 3rd Edition is thoroughly revised and expanded from the last edition in 2001, reflecting the significant technological and procedural changes that have occurred in the interim – new aircraft types, increased electronic implementation, developing   markets, increased environmental pressures and the emergence of UAVs. Every chapter is updated, and the latest technologies depicted. It offers an essential reference tool for aerospace industry researchers and practitioners such as aircraft designers, fuel specialists, engine specialists, and ground crew maintenance providers, as well as a textbook for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in systems engineering, aerospace and engineering avionics.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xvii

Series Preface xix

About the Authors xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

List of Abbreviations xxv

Introduction xxxv

Systems Integration xxxvi

Systems Interaction xxxix

1 Flight Control Systems 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Principles of Flight Control 3

1.3 Flight Control Surfaces 4

1.4 Primary Flight Control 5

1.5 Secondary Flight Control 5

1.6 Commercial Aircraft 7

1.7 Flight Control Linkage Systems 9

1.8 High Lift Control Systems 13

1.9 Trim and Feel 15

1.10 Flight Control Actuation 18

1.11 Civil System Implementations 34

1.12 Fly-By-Wire Control Laws 40

1.13 A380 Flight Control Actuation 41

1.14 Boeing 777 Implementation 44

1.15 Interrelationship of Flight Control, Guidance and Flight Management 48

2 Engine Control Systems 51

2.1 Introduction 51

2.2 Engine Technology and Principles of Operation 53

2.3 The Control Problem 55

2.4 Example Systems 62

2.5 Design Criteria 71

2.6 Engine Starting 73

2.7 Engine Indications 78

2.8 Engine Oil Systems 81

2.9 Engine Offtakes 81

2.10 Reverse Thrust 83

2.11 Engine Control on Modern Civil Aircraft 84

3 Fuel Systems 87

3.1 Introduction 87

3.2 Characteristics of Fuel Systems 89

3.3 Description of Fuel System Components 90

3.4 Fuel Quantity Measurement 94

3.5 Fuel System Operating Modes 105

3.6 Integrated Civil Aircraft Systems 116

3.7 Fuel Tank Safety 128

3.8 Polar Operations – Cold Fuel Management 133

4 Hydraulic Systems 137

4.1 Introduction 137

4.2 Hydraulic Circuit Design 138

4.3 Hydraulic Actuation 142

4.4 Hydraulic Fluid 144

4.5 Fluid Pressure 145

4.6 Fluid Temperature 145

4.7 Fluid Flow Rate 146

4.8 Hydraulic Piping 146

4.9 Hydraulic Pumps 147

4.10 Fluid Conditioning 151

4.11 Hydraulic Reservoir 152

4.12 Warnings and Status 152

4.13 Emergency Power Sources 153

4.14 Proof of Design 154

4.15 Aircraft System Applications 155

4.16 Civil Transport Comparison 163

4.17 Landing Gear Systems 167

5 Electrical Systems 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Aircraft Electrical System 184

5.3 Power Generation 185

5.4 Primary Power Distribution 199

5.5 Power Conversion and Energy Storage 201

5.6 Secondary Power Distribution 203

5.7 Typical Aircraft DC System 207

5.8 Typical Civil Transport Electrical System 208

5.9 Electrical Loads 210

5.10 Emergency Power Generation 214

5.11 Recent Systems Developments 218

5.12 Recent Electrical System Developments 228

5.13 Electrical Systems Displays 237

6 Pneumatic Systems 239

6.1 Introduction 239

6.2 Use of Bleed Air 240

6.3 Engine Bleed Air Control 244

6.4 Bleed Air System Indications 247

6.5 Bleed Air System Users 247

6.6 Pitot Static Systems 252

7 Environmental Control Systems 259

7.1 Introduction 259

7.2 The Need for a Controlled Environment 260

7.3 The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) 263

7.4 Environmental Control System Design 266

7.5 Cooling Systems 271

7.6 Humidity Control 278

7.7 The Inefficiency of Present Systems 279

7.8 Air Distribution Systems 279

7.9 Cabin Noise 284

7.10 Cabin Pressurisation 284

7.11 Hypoxia 287

7.12 Molecular Sieve Oxygen Concentrators 288

7.13 g Tolerance 291

7.14 Rain Dispersal 292

7.15 Anti-Misting and De-Misting 293

7.16 Aircraft Icing 293

8 Emergency Systems 297

8.1 Introduction 297

8.2 Warning Systems 298

8.3 Fire Detection and Suppression 301

8.4 Emergency Power Sources 305

8.5 Explosion Suppression 307

8.6 Emergency Oxygen 308

8.7 Passenger Evacuation 308

8.8 Crew Escape 310

8.9 Computer-Controlled Seats 312

8.10 Ejection System Timing 313

8.11 High Speed Escape 314

8.12 Crash Recorder 314

8.13 Crash Switch 315

8.14 Emergency Landing 315

8.15 Emergency System Testing 317

9 Rotary Wing Systems 319

9.1 Introduction 319

9.2 Special Requirements of Helicopters 320

9.3 Principles of Helicopter Flight 321

9.4 Helicopter Flight Control 324

9.5 Primary Flight Control Actuation 325

9.6 Key Helicopter Systems 333

9.7 Helicopter Auto-Flight Control 343

9.8 Active Control Technology 349

9.9 Advanced Battlefield Helicopter 350

9.10 Tilt Rotor Systems 357

10 Advanced Systems 371

10.1 Introduction 371

10.2 Stealth 374

10.3 Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) 375

10.4 Vehicle Management System 377

10.5 More-Electric Aircraft 381

10.6 More-Electric Actuation 388

10.7 More-Electric Engine 389

10.8 Impact of Stealth Design 393

10.9 Technology Developments/Demonstrators 402

11 System Design and Development 407

11.1 Introduction 407

11.2 System Design 408

11.3 Major Safety Processes 411

11.4 Requirements Capture 415

11.5 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 418

11.6 Dependency Diagram 420

11.7 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 422

11.8 Component Reliability 423

11.9 Dispatch Reliability 424

11.10 Markov Analysis 425

11.11 Development Processes 427

11.12 Extended Operations (ETOPS) 438

12 Avionics Technology 441

12.1 Introduction 441

12.2 The Nature of Microelectronic Devices 443

12.3 Data Bus Integration of Aircraft Systems 460

12.4 Fibre Optic Buses 469

12.5 Avionics Packaging Standards 470

12.6 Typical LRU Architecture 471

12.7 Integrated Modular Avionics 473

13 Environmental Conditions 477

13.1 Introduction 477

13.2 Environmental Factors 479

13.3 Testing and Validation Process 493

Index 499

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Author Information

Lan Moir After 20 years in the royal Air Force as an engineering officer, Ian went on to Smiths Industries in the UK where he was involved in a number of advanced projects. Since retiring from Smiths he is now in demand as a highly respected consultant. Ian has a brad and detailed experience working in aircraft avionics systems in both military and civil aircraft. From the RAF Tornado and Apache helicopter to the Boeing 777, Ian's work has kept him at the forefront of new system developments and integrated systems in the areas of more-electric technology and systems implementations. He has a special interest in fostering training and education in aerospace engineering.

Allan Seabridge was until recently the Chief Flight Systems Engineer at BAE Systems at Warton in Lancashire in the UK. In over 30 years in the aerospace industry his work has latterly included the avionics systems on the Nimrod MRA 4 and Lockheed Martin Lightning II (Joint Strike Fighter) as well as a the development of a range of flight and avionics systems on a wide range of fast jets, training aircraft and ground and maritime surveillance projects. Spending much of his time between Europe and the US, Allan is fully aware of systems developments worldwide. he is also keen to encourage a further understanding of integrated engineering systems. An interest in engineering education continues with the design and delivery of systems and engineering courses at a number of UK universities at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

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Reviews

"The book provides excellent coverage of the complete range of aircraft systems and is thus aimed at the professional aerospace design engineer who may have in-depth knowledge of a specialised area but who would really benefit from a broader appreciation of the workings and constraints applicable to all other aircraft systems." (Aerospace Professional, January 2009)
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