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UMTS Signaling: UMTS Interfaces, Protocols, Message Flows and Procedures Analyzed and Explained, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-06533-4
574 pages
March 2007
UMTS Signaling: UMTS Interfaces, Protocols, Message Flows and Procedures Analyzed and Explained, 2nd Edition (0470065338) cover image

Description

This completely revised and updated edition of the highly successful UMTS Signaling provides a deep insight into all aspects of UMTS signalling. The chapter structure has been reworked for improved “usability” for readers, as well as including many new features and updates.

The successful trial, deployment, operation and troubleshooting of 3G or UMTS infrastructures and applications is the biggest challenge facing today’s mobile communications. Network element instability, network element and multi-vendor interoperability, configuration and network planning faults are just a few of the challenges affecting performance and profitability that need to be addressed. This book is an invaluable guide to resolving such problems.

Highlights of the Second Edition:

  • Includes new information and scenarios on HSPA / HSDPA / HSUPA, and IMS
  • Covers not only WCDMA, but also TD-SCDMA issues
  • Contains up-to-date information on releases 5 and 6, and includes a new chapter on the future releases 7 and 8
  • Provides crucial information for network operators and equipment suppliers keen to understand how to handle and analyse UMTS signaling procedures in order to get the network into operation, detect errors and troubleshoot faults
  • Uses first hand, real world information to explain issues which are unclear in the standards
  • Includes comprehensive descriptions and documentation of UMTS reference scenarios for different UMTS procedures

The unified comprehensive approach taken by the authors makes this book essential reading for engineers in network operators, integrators or system suppliers who need to be at the cutting edge of this technology. It will also be an invaluable resource for postgraduates on telecommunications courses, especially those with a focus on signal analysis.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Authors xix

1 UMTS Basics 1

1.1 Standards 2

1.2 Network Architecture 4

1.2.1 GSM 4

1.2.2 UMTS Release 99 5

1.2.3 UMTS Release 4 7

1.2.4 UMTS Release 5 8

1.2.5 HSPA 12

1.2.6 UMTS Release 6 21

1.2.7 UMTS Release 7 and Beyond 24

1.2.8 TD-SCDMA 26

1.3 UMTS Interfaces 28

1.3.1 Iu Interface 28

1.3.2 Iub Interface 29

1.3.3 Iur Interface 29

1.4 UMTS Domain Architecture 31

1.5 UTRAN 31

1.5.1 RNC 33

1.5.2 Node B 35

1.5.3 Area Concept 35

1.5.4 UMTS User Equipment and USIM 36

1.5.5 Mobiles 38

1.5.6 QoS Architecture 39

1.6 UMTS Security 41

1.6.1 Historic Development 41

1.6.2 UMTS Security Architecture 46

1.6.3 Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) 48

1.6.4 Kasumi/Misty 53

1.6.5 Integrity – Air Interface Integrity Mechanism 55

1.6.6 Confidentiality – Encryption (Ciphering) on Uu and Iub 58

1.6.7 UMTS Network Transactions 63

1.7 Radio Interface Basics 63

1.7.1 Duplex Methods 64

1.7.2 Multiple Access Methods 64

1.7.3 UMTS CDMA 65

1.7.4 CDMA Spreading/Channelization 66

1.7.5 Microdiversity – Multipath (FDD and TDD) 67

1.7.6 Microdiversity – Softer Handover (FDD) 67

1.7.7 Macrodiversity – Soft Handover (FDD) 68

1.7.8 UMTS Spreading (FDD and TDD) 68

1.7.9 Scrambling 69

1.7.10 Coding Summary (FDD) 69

1.7.11 Signal to Interference (FDD) 69

1.7.12 Cell Breathing (FDD) 70

1.7.13 UMTS Channels (FDD and TDD) 72

1.7.14 Transport Channels (FDD and TDD) 74

1.7.15 Common Transport Channels (FDD and TDD) 74

1.7.16 Dedicated Transport Channels (FDD and TDD) 75

1.7.17 Initial UE Radio Access (FDD) 76

1.7.18 Power Control (FDD and TDD) 77

1.7.19 UE Random Access (FDD) 79

1.7.20 Power Control in Soft Handover (FDD) 80

1.8 UMTS Network Protocol Architecture 81

1.8.1 Iub – Control Plane 82

1.8.2 Iub – User Plane 83

1.8.3 Iur – User/Control Plane 84

1.8.4 luCS – User/Control Plane 85

1.8.5 IuPS – User/Control Plane 86

1.8.6 E – User/Control Plane 86

1.8.7 Gn – User/Control Plane 87

1.9 SIGTRAN 87

1.10 ATM 89

1.10.1 ATM Cell 90

1.10.2 ATM Layer Architecture 91

1.10.3 ATM Adaption Layer (AAL) 91

1.10.4 AAL2 92

1.10.5 AAL5 92

1.11 User Plane Framing Protocol 93

1.11.1 Frame Architecture 93

1.11.2 FP Control Frame Architecture 94

1.12 Medium Access Protocol (MAC) 95

1.12.1 MAC Architecture 95

1.12.2 MAC Data PDU 96

1.12.3 MAC Header Alternatives 98

1.13 Radio Link Control (RLC) 98

1.13.1 RLC Services 99

1.13.2 RLC Functions 100

1.13.3 RLC Architecture 102

1.13.4 RLC Data PDUs 103

1.13.5 Other RLC PDUs 104

1.14 Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) 104

1.14.1 Example SSCOP 105

1.15 Service Specific Coordination Function (SSCF) 106

1.16 Message Transfer Part Level 3 – Broadband (MTP3-B) 106

1.17 Internet Protocol (IP) 107

1.17.1 IPv4 Frame Architecture 108

1.18 Signaling Transport Converter (STC) 108

1.19 Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) 109

1.19.1 Example SCCP 110

1.20 Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) in UMTS 111

1.20.1 ASN.1 BER 111

1.20.2 ASN.1 PER 112

1.21 Radio Resource Control (RRC) 112

1.21.1 RRC States (3GPP 25.331) 113

1.21.2 System Information Blocks (SIBs) 118

1.22 Node B Application Part (NBAP) 124

1.22.1 NBAP Functions 124

1.22.2 NBAP Elementary Procedures (EPs) 125

1.22.3 Example – NBAP 126

1.23 Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP) 126

1.23.1 RNSAP Functions 126

1.23.2 Example – RNSAP Procedures 127

1.24 Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) 128

1.24.1 RANAP Elementary Procedures (EPs) 129

1.24.2 Example – RANAP Procedure 131

1.25 ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 – Layer 3 (AAL2L3/ALCAP) 131

1.25.1 AAL2L3 Message Format 131

1.25.2 Example – AAL2L3 Procedure 132

1.26 IU User Plane Protocol 134

1.26.1 Iu UP Transparent Mode 134

1.26.2 Iu UP Support Mode Data Frames 134

1.26.3 Iu UP Support Mode Control Frames 136

1.26.4 Example – Iu UP Support Mode Message Flow 136

1.27 Adaptive Multirate (AMR) Codec 136

1.27.1 AMR IF1 Frame Architecture 138

1.28 Terminal Adaptation Function (TAF) 138

1.29 Radio Link Protocol (RLP) 139

1.30 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) 140

1.30.1 PDCP PDU Format 140

1.31 Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC) 141

1.31.1 BMC Architecture 141

1.32 Circuit-Switched Mobility Management (MM) 141

1.33 Circuit-Switched Call Control (CC) 142

1.34 Example – Mobile Originated Call (Circuit Switched) 143

1.35 Packet-Switched Mobility Management (GMM) 144

1.36 Packet-Switched Session Management (SM) 144

1.37 Example – Activate PDP Context (Packet Switched) 145

2 Short Introduction to Network Monitoring, Troubleshooting, and Network Optimization 147

2.1 Iub Monitoring 147

2.1.1 IMA 147

2.1.2 Fractional ATM 148

2.1.3 Load Sharing and Addressing on Iub 149

2.1.4 Troubleshooting Iub Monitoring Scenarios 150

2.2 Iu Monitoring 151

2.2.1 Troubleshooting Iu Monitoring 154

2.3 Network Optimization and Network Troubleshooting 155

2.3.1 Cell-related Performance Relevant Data 159

2.3.2 Call-related Performance Relevant Data 164

3 UMTS UTRAN Signaling Procedures 171

3.1 Iub – Node B Setup 172

3.1.1 Overview 172

3.1.2 Message Flow 173

3.2 Iub – IMSI/GPRS Attach Procedure 191

3.2.1 Overview 191

3.2.2 Message Flow 192

3.3 Iub CS – Mobile Originated Call 205

3.3.1 Overview 206

3.3.2 Message Flow 207

3.4 Iub CS – Mobile Terminated Call 217

3.4.1 Overview 217

3.4.2 Message Flow 219

3.5 Iub PS – PDP Context Activation/Deactivation 223

3.5.1 Overview 225

3.5.2 Message Flow 226

3.6 Iub – IMSI/GPRS Detach Procedure 235

3.6.1 Overview 235

3.6.2 Message Flow 236

3.7 RRC Measurement Procedures 239

3.7.1 RRC Measurement Types 239

3.7.2 Cell Categories 239

3.7.3 Measurement Initiation for Intrafrequency Measurement 240

3.7.4 Intrafrequency Measurement Events 241

3.7.5 Intrafrequency Measurement Report 244

3.7.6 Intrafrequency Measurement Modification 245

3.7.7 Measurement Initiation for Interfrequency Measurement 247

3.7.8 Further RRC Measurement Groups 248

3.7.9 Changing Reporting Conditions After Transition to CELL FACH 249

3.8 Iub – Physical Channel Reconfiguration (PDPC) 250

3.8.1 Message Flow 251

3.9 Channel Type Switching 259

3.9.1 Overview 259

3.9.2 Message Flow 261

3.10 Iub – Mobile-Originated Call with Soft Handover (Inter-Node B, Intra-RNC) 272

3.10.1 Overview 272

3.10.2 Message Flow (Figure 3.70) 273

3.11 Iub – Softer Handover 286

3.11.1 Overview 286

3.11.2 Message Flow 287

3.12 Iub Interfrequency Hard Handover FDD 290

3.12.1 Interfrequency Hard Handover Overview 291

3.12.2 FDD Interfrequency Inter-Node B Hard Handover Call Flow 292

3.13 RRC Measurements in Compressed Mode and Typical Call Drop 296

3.13.1 Message Flow 296

3.14 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 301

3.14.1 HSDPA Cell Setup 302

3.14.2 HSDPA Basic Call 304

3.14.3 Mobility Management and Handover Procedures in HSDPA 310

3.14.4 Troubleshooting HSDPA Calls 318

3.14.5 Proprietary Descriptions of HSDPA Call/Mobility Scenarios 320

3.15 High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) 323

3.15.1 HSUPA Cell Setup 324

3.15.2 HSUPA Call Scenarios 325

3.15.3 HSUPA Basic Call 328

3.16 NBAP Measurements 330

3.16.1 NBAP Common Measurements 331

3.16.2 NBAP Dedicated Measurements 334

4 TDD (TD-SCDMA) Iub Signaling Procedures 339

4.1 TD-SCDMA Radio Interface Structure and Radio Resource Allocation 340

4.1.1 TD-SCDMA Mobile Originated Speech Call Setup 343

4.1.2 RRC Measurements in TD-SCDMA Radio Mode 349

4.1.3 Intra-Cell Interfrequency Handover in TD-SCDMA 352

4.1.4 Inter-Cell Interfrequency Handover 353

4.1.5 Multi-Service Call CS/PS with Inter-Node B Handover 356

5 Iu and Iur Signaling Procedures 363

5.1 Iub-Iu – Location Update 363

5.1.1 Message Flow 364

5.2 Iub-Iu – Mobile-Originated Call 370

5.2.1 Overview 370

5.2.2 Message Flow 372

5.3 Iub-Iu – Mobile-Terminated Call 378

5.3.1 Overview 378

5.3.2 Message Flow 379

5.4 Iub-Iu – Attach 384

5.4.1 Overview 384

5.4.2 Message Flow 385

5.5 Iub-Iu – PDPC Activation/Deactivation 387

5.5.1 Overview 387

5.5.2 Message Flow 388

5.6 Streaming PS Service and Secondary PDP Context 394

5.6.1 Message Flow 395

5.7 Iub-Iu – Detach 398

5.7.1 Overview 398

5.7.2 Message Flow 399

5.8 Iub-Iur – Soft Handover (Inter-Node B, Inter-RNC) 401

5.8.1 Overview 401

5.8.2 Message Flow 402

5.9 Iub-Iu – RRC Re-Establishment (Inter-Node B, Inter-RNC) 412

5.9.1 Overview 412

5.9.2 Message Flow 414

5.10 SRNS Relocation (UE not Involved) 419

5.10.1 Overview 420

5.10.2 Message Flow 421

5.11 SRNS Relocation (UE Involved) 426

5.11.1 Overview 427

5.11.2 Message Flow 429

5.12 Short Message Service (SMS) in UMTS Networks 437

5.12.1 SMS Network Architecture Overview 437

5.12.2 SMS Protocol Architecture 438

5.12.3 Mobile-Originated Short Message 439

5.12.4 Mobile-Terminated Short Message 446

6 Signaling Procedures in the 3G Core Network 453

6.1 ISUP/BICC Call Setup 453

6.1.1 Address Parameters for ISUP/BICC Messages 454

6.1.2 ISUP Call (Successful) 454

6.1.3 ISUP Call (Unsuccessful) 455

6.1.4 BICC Call Setup on E Interface Including IuCS Signaling 458

6.2 Gn Interface Signaling 462

6.2.1 PDF Context Creation on Gn (GTP-C and GTP-U) 464

6.2.2 GTP-C Location Management 465

6.2.3 GTP-C Mobility Management 465

6.2.4 SGSN Relocation 467

6.2.5 Example GTP 467

6.3 Procedures on the Gs Interface 469

6.3.1 Location Update via Gs 469

6.3.2 Detach Indication via Gs 470

6.3.3 Paging via Gs 470

6.4 Signaling on Interfaces Toward HLR 470

6.4.1 Addressing on MAP Interfaces 472

6.4.2 MAP Architecture 473

6.4.3 MAP Signaling Example 475

6.5 Inter-3G MSC Handover Procedure 477

6.5.1 Inter-3G MSC Handover Overview 480

6.5.2 Inter-3G MSC Handover Call Flow 482

6.6 Inter-3G-2G-3G MSC Handover Procedure 486

6.6.1 Inter-3G-2G MSC Handover/Relocation Overview (Figure 6.42) 489

6.6.2 Inter-3G-2G MSC Handover Call Flow 490

6.6.3 Inter-3G-2G MSC Handover Messages on E Interface 494

6.6.4 Inter-2G-3G MSC Handover/Relocation Overview 495

6.6.5 Inter-2G-3G MSC Subsequent Handover Messages on the E Interface 500

6.6.6 2G-3G CS Inter-RAT Handover on IuCS and Iub Interface 501

6.6.7 PS Inter-RAT Mobility 506

6.7 Customized Application for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) 509

6.7.1 IN/CAMEL Network Architecture 510

6.7.2 CAMEL Basic Call State Model 511

6.7.3 Charging Operation Using CAMEL 512

6.7.4 CAMEL Signaling Example for GPRS Charging 513

6.8 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 517

6.8.1 IMS PDP Context Activation Basics 517

6.8.2 IMS UE-UE Call Basics 518

Glossary 521

Bibliography 537

Index 541

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Author Information

Ralf Kreher works as a Solution Architect for Tektronix’ Mobile Protocol Test (MPT) business with a focus on UMTS Performance Measurement and Key Performance Indicator (KPI) implementation. Previously hewas head of the MPT Customer Training Department for almost four years and was responsible for a world-class seminar portfolio for mobile technologies and measurement products. Before joining Tektronix, Kreher held a trainer assignment for switching equipment at Teles AG, Berlin.
Kreher holds a Communication Engineering Degree of the University of Applied Science, Deutsche Telekom Leipzig. He is internationally recognized as an author of the following books: UMTS Signaling (Wiley) and UMTS Performance Measurement. A Practical Guide to KPIs for the UTRAN Environment (Wiley). He currently resides in Germany.

Torsten Ruedebusch is head of the Knowledgeware and Training Department for Tektronix' Mobile Protocol Test business (MPT). He is responsible for providing leading edge technology and product seminars and the creation of knowledgeware products, from the extensive Tektronix’ expertise. Before joining Tektronix, Ruedebusch held an application engineer assignment at Siemens CTE.
Ruedebusch holds a Communication Engineering degree from the Technical College Deutsche Telekom, Berlin. He currently resides in Germany.

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