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Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 6th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-08525-7
1024 pages
February 2010, ©2010
Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 6th Edition (0470085258) cover image
The definitive guide to stability design criteria, fully updated and incorporating current research

Representing nearly fifty years of cooperation between Wiley and the Structural Stability Research Council, the Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures is often described as an invaluable reference for practicing structural engineers and researchers. For generations of engineers and architects, the Guide has served as the definitive work on designing steel and aluminum structures for stability. Under the editorship of Ronald Ziemian and written by SSRC task group members who are leading experts in structural stability theory and research, this Sixth Edition brings this foundational work in line with current practice and research.

The Sixth Edition incorporates a decade of progress in the field since the previous edition, with new features including:

  • Updated chapters on beams, beam-columns, bracing, plates, box girders, and curved girders. Significantly revised chapters on columns, plates, composite columns and structural systems, frame stability, and arches

  • Fully rewritten chapters on thin-walled (cold-formed) metal structural members, stability under seismic loading, and stability analysis by finite element methods

  • State-of-the-art coverage of many topics such as shear walls, concrete filled tubes, direct strength member design method, behavior of arches, direct analysis method, structural integrity and disproportionate collapse resistance, and inelastic seismic performance and design recommendations for various moment-resistant and braced steel frames

Complete with over 350 illustrations, plus references and technical memoranda, the Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, Sixth Edition offers detailed guidance and background on design specifications, codes, and standards worldwide.

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PREFACE xiii

NOTATION AND ABBREVIATIONS xv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 From the Metal Column to the Structural System 1

1.2 Scope and Summary of the Guide 2

1.3 Mechanical Properties of Structural Metals 3

1.4 Definitions 5

1.5 Postbuckling Behavior 8

1.6 Credits for the Chapters in the Sixth Edition of the SSRC Guide 9

References 11

CHAPTER 2 STABILITY THEORY 12

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Bifurcation Buckling 13

2.3 Limit-Load Buckling 20

References 22

CHAPTER 3 CENTRALLY LOADED COLUMNS 23

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 Column Strength 25

3.3 Influence of Imperfections 29

3.4 Influence of End Restraint 44

3.5 Strength Criteria for Steel Columns 52

3.6 Aluminum Columns 63

3.7 Stainless Steel Columns 79

3.8 Tapered Columns 85

3.9 Built-Up Columns 90

3.10 Stepped Columns 104

3.11 Guyed Towers 109

References 114

CHAPTER 4 PLATES 128

4.1 Introduction 128

4.2 Elastic Local Buckling of Flat Plates 130

4.3 Inelastic Buckling, Postbuckling, and Strength of Flat Plates 145

4.4 Buckling, Postbuckling, and Strength of Stiffened Plates 163

4.5 Buckling of Orthotropic Plates 180

4.6 Interaction between Plate Elements 188

References 193

CHAPTER 5 BEAMS 205

5.1 Introduction 205

5.2 Elastic Lateral–Torsional Buckling, Prismatic I-Section Members 208

5.3 Fundamental Comparison of Design Standards, Prismatic I-Section Members 232

5.4 Stepped, Variable Web Depth and Other Nonprismatic I-Section  Members 236

5.5 Continuous-Span Composite I-Section Members 240

5.6 Beams with Other Cross-Sectional Types 242

5.7 Design for Inelastic Deformation Capacity 243

5.8 Concluding Remarks 246

References 247

CHAPTER 6 PLATE GIRDERS 257

6.1 Introduction 257

6.2 Preliminary Sizing 259

6.3 Web Buckling as a Basis for Design 261

6.4 Shear Strength of Plate Girders 262

6.5 Girders with No Intermediate Stiffeners 274

6.6 Steel Plate Shear Walls 275

6.7 Bending Strength of Plate Girders 277

6.8 Combined Bending and Shear 280

6.9 Plate Girders with Longitudinal Stiffeners 283

6.10 End Panels 290

6.11 Design of Stiffeners 290

6.12 Panels under Edge Loading 293

6.13 Fatigue 305

6.14 Design Principles and Philosophies 305

6.15 Girders with Corrugated Webs 306

6.16 Research Needs 311

References 312

CHAPTER 7 BOX GIRDERS 321

7.1 Introduction 321

7.2 Bases of Design 323

7.3 Buckling of Wide Flanges 326

7.4 Bending Strength of Box Girders 344

7.5 Nominal Shear Strength of Box Girders 345

7.6 Strength of Box Girders under Combined Bending, Compression, and Shear 348

7.7 Influence of Torsion on Strength of Box Girders 353

7.8 Diaphragms 353

7.9 Top-Flange Lateral Bracing of Quasi-Closed Sections 365

7.10 Research Needs 367

References 368

CHAPTER 8 BEAM-COLUMNS 371

8.1 Introduction 371

8.2 Strength of Beam-Columns 373

8.3 Uniaxial Bending: In-Plane Strength 375

8.4 Uniaxial Bending: Lateral–Torsional Buckling 386

8.5 Equivalent Uniform Moment Factor 392

8.6 Biaxial Bending 394

8.7 Special Topics 404

References 405

CHAPTER 9 HORIZONTALLY CURVED STEEL GIRDERS 413

9.1 Introduction 413

9.2 Historical Review 414

9.3 Fabrication and Construction 416

9.4 Analysis Methods 421

9.5 Stability of Curved I-Girders 423

9.6 Stability of Curved Box Girders 440

9.7 Concluding Remarks 442

References 442

CHAPTER 10 COMPOSITE COLUMNS AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 456

10.1 Introduction 456

10.2 U.S.–Japan Research Program 460

10.3 Cross-Sectional Strength of Composite Sections 467

10.4 Other Considerations for Cross-Sectional Strength 471

10.5 Length Effects 473

10.6 Force Transfer between Concrete and Steel 474

10.7 Design Approaches 478

10.8 Structural Systems and Connections for Composite and Hybrid Structures 484

10.9 Summary 486

References 486

CHAPTER 11 STABILITY OF ANGLE MEMBERS 493

11.1 Introduction 493

11.2 Review of Experimental and Analytical Research 494

11.3 Single-Angle Compression Members 501

11.4 Current Industry Practice for Hot-Rolled Single-Angle Members in the United States 507

11.5 Design Criteria for Hot-Rolled Angle Columns in Europe, Australia, and Japan 511

11.6 Design of Axially Loaded Cold-Formed Single Angles 512

11.7 Concluding Remarks on the Compressive Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Single-Angle Members 514

11.8 Multiple Angles in Compression 514

11.9 Angles in Flexure 522

References 526

CHAPTER 12 BRACING 531

12.1 Introduction 531

12.2 Background 533

12.3 Safety Factors, φ Factors, and Definitions 536

12.4 Relative Braces for Columns or Frames 537

12.5 Discrete Bracing Systems for Columns 538

12.6 Continuous Column Bracing 541

12.7 Lean-on Systems 542

12.8 Columns Braced on One Flange 544

12.9 Beam Buckling and Bracing 545

12.10 Beam Bracing 546

References 553

CHAPTER 13 THIN-WALLED METAL CONSTRUCTION 556

13.1 Introduction 556

13.2 Member Stability Modes (Elastic) 557

13.3 Effective Width Member Design 571

13.4 Direct Strength Member Design 581

13.5 Additional Design Considerations 596

13.6 Structural Assemblies 599

13.7 Stainless Steel Structural Members 604

13.8 Aluminum Structural Members 606

13.9 Torsional Buckling 610

References 611

CHAPTER 14 CIRCULAR TUBES AND SHELLS 626

14.1 Introduction 626

14.2 Description of Buckling Behavior 629

14.3 Unstiffened or Heavy-Ring-Stiffened Cylinders 631

14.4 General Instability of Ring-Stiffened Cylinders 651

14.5 Stringer- or Ring-and-Stringer-Stiffened Cylinders 658

14.6 Effects on Column Buckling 660

14.7 Cylinders Subjected to Combined Loadings 664

14.8 Strength and Behavior of Damaged and Repaired Tubular Columns 669

References 669

CHAPTER 15 MEMBERS WITH ELASTIC LATERAL RESTRAINTS 678

15.1 Introduction 678

15.2 Buckling of the Compression Chord 679

15.3 Effect of Secondary Factors on Buckling Load 685

15.4 Top-Chord Stresses due to Bending of Floor Beams and to Initial Chord Eccentricities 686

15.5 Design Example 686

15.6 Plate Girder with Elastically Braced Compression Flange 689

15.7 Guyed Towers 689

References 690

CHAPTER 16 FRAME STABILITY 692

16.1 Introduction 692

16.2 Methods of Analysis 693

16.3 Frame Behavior 705

16.4 Frame Stability Assessment Using Second-Order Analysis 724

16.5 Overview of Current Code Provisions 741

16.6 Structural Integrity and Disproportionate Collapse Resistance 748

16.7 Concluding Remarks 753

References 754

CHAPTER 17 ARCHES 762

17.1 Introduction 762

17.2 In-Plane Stability of Arches 764

17.3 Out-of-Plane Stability of Arches 782

17.4 Braced Arches and Requirements for Bracing Systems 792

17.5 Ultimate Strength of Steel Arch Bridges 798

References 802

CHAPTER 18 DOUBLY CURVED SHELLS AND SHELL-LIKE STRUCTURES 807

18.1 Introduction 807

18.2 The Basic Problem 810

18.3 Finite Element Method 814

18.4 Design Codes 816

18.5 Design Aids 818

18.6 Reticulated Shells 819

18.7 Design Trends and Research Needs 821

References 821

CHAPTER 19 STABILITY UNDER SEISMIC LOADING 824

19.1 Introduction 824

19.2 Design for Local and Member Stability 831

19.3 Global System Stability (P− Effects) 882

References 910

CHAPTER 20 STABILITY ANALYSIS BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 933

20.1 Introduction 933

20.2 Nonlinear Analysis 940

20.3 Linearized Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis 943

References 956

APPENDIX A GENERAL REFERENCES ON STRUCTURAL STABILITY 959

APPENDIX B TECHNICAL MEMORANDA OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY RESEARCH COUNCIL 963

B.1 Technical Memorandum No. 1: The Basic Column Formula 963

B.2 Technical Memorandum No. 2: Notes on the Compression Testing of Metals 965

B.3 Technical Memorandum No. 3: Stub-Column Test Procedure 970

B.4 Technical Memorandum No. 4: Procedure for Testing Centrally Loaded Columns 978

B.5 Technical Memorandum No. 5: General Principles for the Stability Design of Metal Structures 991

B.6 Technical Memorandum No. 6: Determination of Residual Stresses 993

B.7 Technical Memorandum No. 7: Tension Testing 1002

B.8 Technical Memorandum No. 8: Standard Methods and Definitions for Tests for Static Yield Stress 1006

B.9 Technical Memorandum No. 9: Flexural Testing 1013

B.10 Technical Memorandum No. 10: Statistical Evaluation of Test Data for Limit States Design 1021

References 1027

APPENDIX C STRUCTURAL STABILITY RESEARCH COUNCIL 1030

NAME INDEX 1035

SUBJECT INDEX 1057

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Ronald D. Ziemian, PhD, PE, professor of civil engineering at Bucknell University, was the recipient of the 2006 AISC Special Achievement Award and the 1992 ASCE Norman Medal for his work in advancing the use of nonlinear analysis in the stability design of steel structures. He is the coauthor of Matrix Structural Analysis, Second Edition (also from Wiley), chairs the SSRC Executive Committee and the AISC Task Committee 10 on Frame Stability, and further serves on the AISC and Aluminum Association specification committees.
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