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Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: A Communication-Theoretic Perspective

ISBN: 978-0-470-09110-4
346 pages
April 2006, ©2006
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: A Communication-Theoretic Perspective (047009110X) cover image

Description

Ad hoc networking is a new area in wireless communications that is going to prevail in the next few decades. Understanding the full potential of this technology will lead to new applications both civilian and military, such as military ad hoc wireless networks, environmental sensor networks, car-based ad hoc networks, biomedical networks and many more.    

This text takes a “bottom-up” perspective.

  • The physical layer performance of ad hoc wireless networks is studied in detail showing the strong dependence of higher layer performance on physical layer capabilities and limitations.
  • A communication-theoretic perspective on the design of ad hoc wireless networks is presented. 
  • The interaction between physical layer and higher layers is discussed providing a new perspective in the practical design of ad hoc wireless networks.

Topics in the book range from the basic principles of networking and communication systems through to applications making it ideal for practicing and R&D engineers in the wireless communications and networking industries looking to understand this new area.  The inclusion of problems and solutions at the end of each chapter furthers understanding and makes it a highly relevant text for  post-graduate and senior undergraduates on communication systems and computer science courses.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

List of Acronyms xv

1 Related Work and Preliminary Considerations 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Related Work 2

1.2.1 A Routing-Based Approach 2

1.2.2 An Information-Theoretic Approach 3

1.2.3 A Dynamic Control Approach 4

1.2.4 A Game-Theoretic Approach 4

1.3 A New Perspective for the Design of AdHoc Wireless Networks 5

1.4 Overview of the Underlying Assumptions in the Following Chapters 9

1.5 The Main Philosophy Behind the Book 11

2 A Communication-Theoretic Framework for Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Ideal Scenario 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Preliminaries 16

2.2.1 Topology 16

2.2.2 Route Discovery 17

2.2.3 Average Number of Hops 18

2.3 Communication-Theoretic Basics 18

2.3.1 Bit Error Rate at the End of a Multi-hop Route 18

2.3.2 Link Signal-to-Noise Ratio 20

2.4 BER Performance Analysis 23

2.4.1 Uncoded Transmission 23

2.4.2 Coded Transmission 27

2.5 Network Behavior 29

2.5.1 Minimum Spatial Energy Density and Minimum Transmit Power for Full Connectivity 30

2.5.2 Connectivity: Average Sustainable Number of Hops 34

2.5.3 Lifetime of a Node 40

2.6 Concluding Remarks 41

3 A Communication-Theoretic Framework for Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Realistic Scenario 43

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Preliminaries 44

3.3 Communication-Theoretic Basics 46

3.4 Inter-node Interference  48

3.4.1 Geometric Considerations 48

3.4.2 Traffic Model 49

3.5 RESGO MAC Protocol 50

3.5.1 Scenario with Strong LOS and Interference from Nodes in Tier 1 50

3.5.2 Scenario with Strong LOS and Interference from Nodes in Tiers 1 and 2 57

3.5.3 Scenario with Strong Multipath (Rayleigh Fading) 58

3.5.4 Discussion 63

3.6 RESLIGO MAC Protocol 64

3.6.1 Scenario with Strong LOS 66

3.6.2 Scenario with Strong Multipath (Rayleigh Fading) 69

3.6.3 Discussion 72

3.7 Network Behavior 73

3.7.1 Minimum Spatial Energy Density and Minimum Transmit Power for Full Connectivity 73

3.7.2 Scenario with Strong LOS 73

3.7.3 Scenario with Strong Multipath (Rayleigh Fading) 75

3.7.4 Connectivity: Average Sustainable Number of Hops 78

3.8 Conclusions  83

4 Connectivity in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: A Physical Layer Perspective 85

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Quasi-regular Topology 86

4.2.1 A Formal Definition of Quasi-regular Topology 87

4.2.2 A Communication-Theoretic Approach 88

4.2.3 What Happens if Each Node has Two Spatial Neighbors? 93

4.2.4 What Happens if There is Inter-node Interference? 96

4.3 Random Topology 100

4.3.1 Related Work 100

4.3.2 Connectivity in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Random Topology 102

4.3.3 Evaluation of the Likelihood of Broadcast Percolation 104

4.3.4 What Happens if There is Inter-node Interference? 108

4.4 Concluding Remarks and Discussion 109

5 Effective Transport Capacity in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Model and Assumptions 113

5.3 Preliminaries 115

5.3.1 Route Bit Error Rate 115

5.3.2 Link Signal-to-Noise Ratio 115

5.3.3 Average Sustainable Number of Hops 117

5.4 Single-Route Effective Transport Capacity 117

5.5 Aggregate Effective Transport Capacity 120

5.5.1 Ideal (no INI) Case 121

5.5.2 Realistic (INI) Case: RESGO MAC Protocol 123

5.5.3 Realistic (INI) Case: RESLIGO MAC Protocol 128

5.6 Comparison of the RESGO and RESLIGO MAC Protocols 131

5.7 Spread-RESGO: Improved RESGO MAC Protocol with Per-route Spreading Codes 134

5.8 Discussion 138

5.9 Concluding Remarks 141

6 Impact of Mobility on the Performance of Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 143

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Preliminaries 144

6.2.1 Ideal (no INI) Case 147

6.2.2 Realistic (INI) Case 147

6.3 Switching Models 149

6.3.1 Opportunistic Non-reservation-Based Switching 149

6.3.2 Reservation-Based Switching 150

6.4 Mobility Models 150

6.4.1 Direction-Persistent Mobility Model 150

6.4.2 Direction-Non-persistent (DNP) Mobility Model 155

6.5 Numerical Results 157

6.5.1 Direction-Persistent Mobility Model 157

6.5.2 Direction-Non-persistent Mobility Model 161

6.6 Conclusions 163

7 Route Reservation in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 167

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Related Work 168

7.3 Network Models and Assumptions 169

7.3.1 Network Topology 169

7.3.2 Typical Routes  170

7.3.3 Bit Error Rate at the End of a Multi-hop Route 170

7.3.4 Retransmission Model 172

7.3.5 Mobility 172

7.4 The Two Switching Schemes 173

7.4.1 Reservation-Based Switching 173

7.4.2 Non-reservation-Based Switching 175

7.5 Analysis of the Two Switching Techniques 176

7.5.1 Reservation-Based Switching 176

7.5.2 Non-reservation-Based Switching 179

7.6 Results and Discussion 182

7.6.1 Switching Scheme and Traffic Load 182

7.6.2 Effects of Interference 183

7.6.3 Effects of the Number of Simultaneously Active Disjoint Routes 188

7.6.4 Effects of Node Spatial Density 189

7.6.5 Effects of Mobility 191

7.6.6 Implications on Practical Scenarios 192

7.7 Concluding Remarks 193

8 Optimal Common Transmit Power for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 195

8.1 Introduction 195

8.2 Model and Assumptions 196

8.2.1 Network Topology 196

8.2.2 Routing 197

8.2.3 Medium Access Control Protocol 199

8.3 Connectivity 199

8.3.1 Square Grid Topology 200

8.3.2 Two-Dimensional Poisson Topology 201

8.4 BER at the End of a Multi-hop Route 202

8.4.1 Square Grid Topology 202

8.4.2 Random Topology 204

8.5 Optimal Common Transmit Power 204

8.5.1 Optimal Common Transmit Power for Networks with Square Grid Topology 204

8.5.2 Optimal Common Transmit Power for Networks with Random Topology 205

8.6 Performance Metrics 205

8.6.1 Node and Network Lifetime 205

8.6.2 Effective Transport Capacity 206

8.7 Results and Discussion 208

8.7.1 Optimal Transmit Power and Data Rate 208

8.7.2 Optimal Transmit Power and Node Spatial Density 210

8.7.3 Effects of Strong Propagation Path Loss 211

8.7.4 Connectivity Robustness to Node Spatial Density Changes 213

8.7.5 Practical Determination of the Optimal Transmit Power 215

8.8 Related Work 216

8.9 Conclusions 217

9 The Routing Problem in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: A Cross-Layer Perspective 219

9.1 Introduction 219

9.2 Experimental Evidence 220

9.3 Preliminaries: Analytical Models and Assumptions 221

9.3.1 Physical Layer 221

9.3.2 Medium Access Control 225

9.3.3 Basic Networking Assumptions 226

9.4 Route Selection: Simulation Study 227

9.4.1 Network Topology 227

9.4.2 BER-Based Routing versus Shortest-Path Routing 227

9.5 Network Performance Evaluation 235

9.5.1 Average Hop Length Models 235

9.5.2 Retransmission Model 239

9.5.3 Packet Error Rate 239

9.5.4 Delay 240

9.6 Discussion 243

9.6.1 Cross-layer Routing: A Practical Perspective 243

9.6.2 Mobility 246

9.7 Related Work 246

9.8 Conclusions 248

10 Concluding Remarks 249

10.1 Introduction 249

10.2 Extensions of the Theoretical Framework: Open Problems 249

10.2.1 Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Random Versus Uniform Topologies 249

10.2.2 Impact of Clustering on the BER Performance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 251

10.2.3 Impact of Receiver Sensitivity on the Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 253

10.2.4 Spectral Efficiency–Connectivity Tradeoff in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks 254

10.2.5 MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications 256

10.2.6 Smart Antennas and Directional Antennas 256

10.3 Network Architectures 256

10.4 Network Application Architectures 257

10.5 Standards 258

10.6 Applications 263

10.7 Conclusions 264

Appendix A Analysis of the Inter-node Interference 265

A.1 Introduction 265

A.2 Exact Computation of the Average Link BER in a Scenario with Strong LOS 265

A.2.1 Interference from Nodes inTier1 266

A.2.2 Interference from Nodes inTiers1 and 2 271

A.2.3 Interference from Nodes in Tier 2 273

A.2.4 Simulation Scenario 274

A.3 Exact Computation of the Average Link BER in a Scenario with Strong Multipath (Rayleigh Fading) 276

A.3.1 Interference from Nodes in Tier 1 277

A.3.2 Interference from Nodes in Tiers 1 and 2 278

A.3.3 Interference from Nodes in Tiers1, 2 and 3 278

A.4 LOS and Multipath (Rice Fading) 280

A.5 Gaussian Assumption for the Interference Noise 280

A.5.1 Route Bit Error Rate 282

A.5.2 Interference Power 284

Appendix B Proof of Theorem 1, Chapter 5 287

Appendix C Route Discovery 293

Appendix D Validation of Analytical Results 295

D.1 Validation of Network Goodput 295

D.2 Validation of Delay 295

D.3 Validation of Average Number of Simultaneously Active Routes 297

Appendix E Derivation of Joint CDF of W and ɸ 299

References 307

Index 327

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Author Information

Ozan Tonguz is the Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Co-Director of the Centre for Wireless and Broadband Networking at Carnegie Mellon University, USA.  He has twenty years teaching experience at universities in the US and has ten years industry consulting experience. He has also been granted service awards from the IEEE Communications Society and the Optical Society of America.

Dr Ferrari completed his Ph.D. in 2002 and is an Assistant Professor at University of Parma in Italy.  He is currently on leave carrying out research on ad hoc wireless networks at Carnegie Mellon University, USA in Professor Tonguz’s department.

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Reviews

"This volume will be of interest to anyone who is involved in ad hoc networks and cross-layer design." (Computing Reviews.com, June 15, 2007)
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Related Websites / Extra

Ad Hoc Wireless NetworksVisit the companion website to access electronic figures from the book.
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