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Next Generation SDH/SONET: Evolution or Revolution?

ISBN: 978-0-470-09121-0
254 pages
October 2005
Next Generation SDH/SONET: Evolution or Revolution? (0470091215) cover image


Since the turn of the twentieth century, telecommunications has shifted from traditional voice transport to data transport, although digitized voice is still a large contributor. Instead of an evolution of existing transport standards, a revolution was necessary in order to enable additional data-related transport.

Next Generation SDH/SONET provides a detailed description of the enablers of efficient data transport over any synchronous network. These include virtual concatenation (VCAT), the operation to provide more granularity, and the link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS), an extension of VCAT that provides more flexibility. Equally, generic framing procedure (GFP), the methodology that efficiently transports asynchronous, or variable bit-rate data signals over a synchronous or constant bit-rate, is explored in detail.

  • Describes new extensions to SDH/SONET standards to provide more granularity and flexibility in their structures, enabling the efficient transport of data-related signals such as Ethernet and FICON
  • Presents comprehensive sections on the implementation of multi-service transport platforms (MSTP) enabled by VCAT, LCAS and GFP
  • Provides valuable advice on how to exploit existing networks to create or extend LANs towards metro (MAN) or wide (WAN) area networks and also to support storage area (SAN) networks

This volume will appeal to manufacturers, engineers and all those involved in developing and deploying SDH, SONET and OTN technology. It will also be an invaluable resource for postgraduate students on network communications courses.

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Table of Contents



1 Introduction.

1.1 History.

1.2 Conventions.

2 Concatenation.

2.1 Payload container concatenation.

2.2 Contiguous concatenation.

2.2.1 CCAT of VC–4 and STS–1 SPE.

2.2.2 CCAT of VC–2.

2.3 Virtual concatenation.

2.3.1 Payload distribution and reconstruction.

2.3.2 VCAT of VC–n.

2.3.3 VCAT of VC–m.

2.3.4 VCAT of PDH.

2.4 Applications of concatenation.

2.4.1 Contiguous to virtual to contiguous conversion.

2.4.2 VCAT and data transport.

2.4.3 VCAT and OTN signal transport.

3 Link capacity adjustment scheme.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 LCAS for virtual concatenation.

3.2.1 Methodology.

3.2.2 Control packet.

3.3 Changing the size of a virtual concatenated group.

3.3.1 Planned addition of member(s).

3.3.2 Planned deletion of member(s).

3.3.3 Temporary removal of member.

3.4 LCAS to non-LCAS interworking.

3.4.1 LCAS Source and non-LCAS Sink.

3.4.2 Non-LCAS Source and LCAS Sink.

3.5 LCAS control packet details.

3.5.1 The higher order VLI.

3.5.2 The lower order VLI.

3.5.3 The OTN VLI.

3.5.4 The PDH VLI.

4 The LCAS protocol.

4.1 Introduction.

4.1.1 Asymmetric connections.

4.1.2 Symmetric connections.

4.1.3 Unidirectional operation.8

4.2 The size of a VCG.

4.3 The LCAS protocol described using SDL.

4.3.1 Used SDL symbols.

4.3.2 LCAS state machines.

4.3.3 LCAS events used in the SDL diagrams.

4.3.4 The SDL diagrams.

5 LCAS time sequence diagrams.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Provisioning a member.

5.3 VCG state transition examples.

5.3.1 An increase of the bandwidth of a VCG.

5.3.2 A decrease of the bandwidth of a VCG.

5.3.3 Decrease of bandwidth due to a network problem.

6 Generic framing procedure.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Common aspects of GFP for octet-aligned payloads.

6.2.1 Basic signal structure for GFP client frames.

6.2.2 GFP client frames.

6.2.3 GFP control frames.

6.2.4 GFP frame-level functions.

6.3 Client specific aspects for frame-mapped GFP.

6.3.1 Ethernet MAC payload.

6.3.2 IP/PPP payload.

6.3.3 RPR payload.

6.3.4 Fibre Channel payload via FC-BBW.

6.3.5 Direct mapping of MPLS.

6.3.6 Error handling in frame-mapped GFP.

6.4 Client specific aspects for transparent-mapped GFP.

6.4.1 Common aspects of GFP-T.

6.4.2 Client-specific signal fail aspects.

6.5 Server specific aspects of GFP.

6.6 GFP PDU examples.

6.6.1 GFP-F PDU.

6.6.2 GFP-T PDU.

6.6.3 GPT CMF PDU.

7 Functional models for LCAS and GFP.

7.1 Virtual concatenation functions.

7.1.1 Sn–Xv Trail Termination function.

7.1.2 Sn–Xv/Sn–X adaptation function.

7.1.3 Sn–X Trail Termination function.

7.1.4 Sn Trail Termination function.

7.2 S4–Xc to S4–Xc interworking function.

7.3 LCAS-capable VCAT functions.

7.3.1 Sn–Xv–L Layer Trail Termination function.

7.3.2 Sn–Xv/Sn–X–L adaptation function.

7.3.3 Sn–X–L Trail Termination function.

7.3.4 Sn Trail Termination function.

7.3.5 Sn–X–L to Client adaptation function.

7.4 GFP adaptation functions.

7.4.1 Source side GFP adaptation processes.

7.4.2 Sink side GFP adaptation processes.

7.5 Equipment models for GFP.

7.5.1 Ethernet tributary port.

7.5.2 IP router port.

7.5.3 SAN tributary port.

8 The LCAS procedure exercised.

8.1 Basic configuration.

8.1.1 The VCG Source side configuration.

8.1.2 The VCG Sink side configuration.

8.1.3 VCG Source, VCG Sink and subnetwork configuration.

8.2 Exercise 1: Initiate a 3-member VCG.

8.2.1 Step a: provision the connectivity.

8.2.2 Step b: provision the Sink.

8.2.3 Step c: provision the Source.

8.3 Exercise 2: Addition of a member.

8.3.1 Step a: provision the Sink.

8.3.2 Step b: provision the connectivity.

8.3.3 Step c: provision the Source.

8.4 Exercise 3: Removal of a member.

8.4.1 Step a: provision the Source.

8.4.2 Step b: provision the Sink.

8.4.3 Step c: remove the connectivity.

8.5 Exercise 4: Member failure.

8.6 Exercise 5: Member recovery.

8.7 Exercise 6: Network degraded.

8.8 For further study.

8.9 Configuration with LCAS disabled.

8.9.1 The VCG Source side configuration.

8.9.2 The VCG Sink side configuration.




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