Analytical Methods for Drinking Water: Advances in Sampling and Analysis
This book "Analytical Methods for Drinking Water: Advances in Sampling and Analysis" reflects this awareness in joining recent analytical developments with policy considerations. A first chapter gives an overview of EU and US drinking water policies, as well as on standardization. Analytical developments are described in depth in the second chapter, focusing on bromate in drinking water. The third chapter deals with the development of a sampling protocol for lead in drinking water, thus mixing analytical development with standardization needs. Finally, the fourth chapter focuses on standardization aspects (pre-normative research) related to materials in contact with drinking water.
This book, written by experts in the field of drinking water policy and analysis, illustrates recent scientific advances in this area, which have contributed to policy development and will be of direct use to policy-makers, water scientists, researchers and analytical laboratories.
List of Contributors.
1 DrinkingWater Regulations (Pierre Hecq, Adriana Hulsmann, Fred S. Hauchman, Jennifer L. McLain and Franz Schmitz).
1.1 EU Directive on Drinking Water – Past, Present and Future.
1.1.1 EU Water Legislation.
1.1.2 The Drinking Water Directives – Revision Processes.
1.1.3 Main Aspects of the Drinking Water Directives.
1.1.4 Revision of the DWD and WHO Guidelines.
1.2 Drinking Water Regulations in the United States.
1.2.2 History of the Safe Drinking Water Act.
1.2.3 Development of Regulations.
1.2.4 Highlights of the Safe Drinking Water Act.
1.2.5 Implementation of Regulations.
1.3.2 Requirements to be met by Laboratories and Analytical Methods.
1.3.3 Standardization in CEN TC 230 Water Analysis and ISO TC 147 Water Quality.
1.3.4 Development of Standards in ISO/TC 147.
1.3.5 Special Standards Development Procedures.
1.3.6 Drafting of Standards.
1.3.7 EU Requirements for Standard Methods.
2 Bromate Determination (A.-Hakim R. Elwaer, Philippe Quevauviller, K. Clive Thompson and Cameron W. McLeod).
2.2 Ion Chromatographic Methods.
2.2.1 Identification and Removal of the Main Interferences.
2.2.2 Sample Pre-treatment Automation.
2.3 Alternative Laboratory Methods.
2.3.1 Ion Chromatography / ICP-MS.
2.3.2 Ion Chromatography Spectrophotometry Detection.
2.3.3 Ion Pair Chromatography – Fluorescence Detection.
2.3.4 Flow Injection – ICP-MS.
2.4 Field-based Methods.
2.4.1 Spectrophotometric Method with Methylene Blue.
2.4.2 Flow Injection – Spectrophotometric Detection.
2.5 Stability of Bromate.
2.5.1 Effect of Water Matrix on Bromate Stability.
2.5.2 Stability of Bromate Species Immobilized on Alumina Microcolumns.
2.6 Interlaboratory Excercise for Bromate Determination.
2.7 Toxicity, Occurrence and Current Status of Bromate in Drinking Waters.
3 Lead Monitoring (Theo van den Hoven and Nellie Slaats).
3.1 Factors Determining the Lead Concentration in Drinking Water.
3.1.1 Sources of Lead in Drinking Water.
3.1.2 Factors Determining the Lead Concentration in Drinking Water.
3.2 Sampling of Lead in Drinking Water.
3.2.1 Available Sampling Procedures.
3.2.2 Definition of a ‘Representative Sample’.
3.2.3 Representative Sampling at an Individual Consumer’s Tap.
3.2.4 Lead Analyses in Tap Water.
3.3 Comparison of Sampling Procedures in the Field.
3.3.1 European Study.
3.3.2 Applied Sampling Procedures.
3.3.3 Characteristics of Test Areas.
3.3.4 Applied Test Procedures.
3.3.5 Performance Criteria of Sampling Protocols.
3.3.6 Representativeness of the Tested Protocols.
3.3.7 Reproducibility of the Tested Protocols.
3.3.8 Costs, Practicality and Consumer Acceptance.
3.3.9 Final Evaluation of Sampling Procedures.
3.3.10 Experience with the Monitoring Protocol in France.
3.4 Fit for Purpose Lead Monitoring Protocols.
3.4.1 The Requirements for Sampling and Monitoring Lead in Accordance with the DWD 98/83/EC.
3.4.2 Sampling and Monitoring Strategy.
3.4.3 Lead Monitoring Purposes.
3.5 Lead Levels in Drinking Water in Tap Water.
3.5.1 Overview of Lead Levels in Test Areas.
3.5.2 Effect of Water Composition.
3.5.3 Effect of Plumbing Materials.
3.5.4 Water Consumption.
4 Materials in Contact with Drinking Water (Jean Baron).
4.1 Parameters Used for the Control of Materials Effects.
4.1.1 Organoleptic Assessments.
4.1.2 General Hygiene Assessments.
4.1.3 Substances that Pose a Risk to Health.
4.1.4 Enhancement of Microbial Growth.
4.2 Test Procedure for Metallic Materials.
4.2.2 Metallic Materials.
4.2.3 Experiments within Conormative Research.
4.3 Test Procedure for Cementitious Materials.
4.3.2 Technical Background.
4.3.3 Effect of Preconditioning and Migration Water.
4.3.4 Reproducibility Tests.
4.3.5 Effect of Preconditioning at Different Ageing Times.
References and Bibliography.