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Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries

ISBN: 978-0-470-11754-5
248 pages
January 2007
Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries (0470117540) cover image
Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries provides guidance for managers and plant engineering staff on specific, practical techniques and tools for addressing forty different human factors issues impacting process safety. Human factors incidents can result in injury and death, damage to the environment, fines, and business losses due to ruined batches, off-spec products, unplanned shutdowns, and other adverse effects. Prevention of these incidents increases productivity and profits.

Complete with examples, case histories, techniques, and implementation methodologies, Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries helps managers and engineering staff design and execute an efficient program. Organized for topical reference, the book includes:

  • An overview on implementing a human factors program at the corporate level or the plant level, covering the business value, developing a program to meet specific needs, improving existing systems, roles and responsibilities, measures of performance, and more
  • Summaries of forty different human factors relating to process safety, with a description of the tools, a practical example with graphics and visual aids, and additional resources
  • Information on addressing the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) requirement for conducting human factors reviews in process hazard analyses (PHAs)
  • A CD-ROM with a color version of the book

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

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Abbreviations and Acronyms.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Purpose of This Book.

1.2 Human Factors.

1.3 Human Error.

1.4 Structure of This Book.

1.5 Linkage to Other CCPS Publications.

1.6 References.

2 The Case for Human Factors.

2.1 Why is Human Factors Needed?

2.2 Past Incidents.

2.3 Business Value/Justification.

2.4 Human Factors in the Life Cycle of a Chemical Plant.

2.5 Needs Driven Program.

2.6 References.

3 Performance Measurement and Improvements.

3.1 Building Improvements into Existing Systems.

3.2 Measures of Performance.

3.3 Roles and Responsibilities.

3.4 Continuous Improvement.

3.5 References.


Facilities and Equipment.

4 Process Equipment Design.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Tools.

4.3 References.

4.4 Additional References.

5 Process Control Systems.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Issues/Example.

5.3 Tools.

5.4 Additional References.

6 Control Center Design.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Tools.

6.3 References.

6.4 Additional References.

7 Remote Operations.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Tools.

7.3 Reference.

8 Facilities and Workstation Design.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Tools.

8.3 References.

8.4 Additional References.

9 Human/Computer Interface.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Human Interactions with Control System Software.

9.3 Tools.

9.4 References.

9.5 Additional References.

10 Safe Havens.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Human Factors Issues.

10.3 Tools.

10.4 References.

11 Labeling.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Tools.

11.3 References.


12 Training.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Guidelines for Training Programs.

12.3 Guidelines for Designing and Delivering Training.

12 4 Tools.

12.5 References.

13 Communication.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Issues/Examples.

13.3 Tools.

13.4 References.

14 Documentation Design and Use.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Converting to Electronic Documentation.

14.3 Use of Documents.

14.4 Tools.

14.5 References.

14.6 Additional References.

15 Environmental Factors.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Noise.

15.3 Vibration.

15.4 Temperature and Relative Humidity.

15.5 Air Quality.

15.6 Lighting.

15.7 References.

16 Workloads and Staffing Levels.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Issues/Examples.

16.3 Tools.

16.4 References.

17 Shiftwork Issues.

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Tools.

17.3 References.

17.4 Additional References.

18 Manual Materials Handling.

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Manual Materials Handling Guidelines.

18.3 References.

18.3 Additional References.

Management Systems.

19 Safety Culture.

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 What is Safety Culture?

19.3 Tools.

19.4 Safety Culture: A Process Industry Case Study.

19.5 Benefits.

19.6 References.

19.7 Additional References.

20 Behavior Based Safety.

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Tools.

20.3 Expected Results.

20.4 References.

20.5 Additional References.

21 Project Planning, Design, and Execution.

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Human Factors Tools for Project Management.

21.3 References.

22 Procedures.

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Tools.

22.3 References.

22.4 Additional References.

23 Maintenance.

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Identifying Critical Maintenance Tasks.

23.3 Maintenance Protocol.

23.4 Tools.

23.5 References.

24 Safe Work Practices and Permit-to-Work Systems.

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Issues.

24.3 Tools.

24.4 References.

24.5 Additional Reference.

25 Management of Change.

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Tools.

25.3 References.

26 Qualitative Hazard Analysis.

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Toolsâ Human Failures.

26.3 Toolsâ Human Factors.

26.4 References.

26.5 Additional References.

27 Quantitative Risk Assessment.

27.1 Introduction.

27.2 Tools.

27.3 References.

27.4 Additional References.

28 Safety Systems.

28.1 Introduction.

28.2 People and Safety Systems.

28.3 Bypassing and Disabling Safety Systems.

28.4 Shutdown Systems.

28.5 Selection of Safety Systems.

28.6 Common Cause Failures in Safety Systems.

28.7 Tools.

28.8 References.

29 Competence Management.

29.1 Introduction.

29.2 Elements of Competence Management.

29.3 Tools.

29.4 References.

29.5 Additional References.

30 Emergency Preparedness and Response.

30.1 Introduction.

30.2 Tools.

30.3 Reference.

30.4 Additional References.

31 Incident Investigation.

31.1 Introduction.

31.2 Issues/Examples.

31.3 Tools.

31.4 References.

Appendix. Human Factors Checklist.


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Since 1985, the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) has been the world leader in providing information on process safety management and technology. CCPS, an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has published over eighty books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concepts series. In this book, CCPS teams up with the AIChE Safety and Health Division. Members of the CCPS Human Factors Subcommittee contributed chapters or sections in their areas of expertise. For more information, visit
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