PhaseLock Basics, 2nd EditionISBN: 9780470118009
441 pages
November 2007, WileyIEEE Press

Description
Table of Contents
Symbols List and Glossary.
Getting Files from The Wiley Ftp Internet Site.
PART 1. PHASE LOCK WITHOUT NOISE.
1. INTRODUCTION.
1.1 What is a phaselocked loop (PLL)?.
1.2 Why use a phaselocked loop?.
1.3 Scope of This Book.
1.4 Basic Loop.
1.5 Phase Definitions.
1.6 Phase Detector.
1.7 Combined Gain.
1.8 Operating Range.
1.9 Units and the Laplace Variable s.
2. THE BASIC LOOP.
2.1 SteadyState Conditions.
2.2 Classical Analysis.
2.3 Mathematical Block Diagram.
2.4 Bode Plot.
2.5 Note on Phase Reversals.
2.6 Summary of Transient Responses of the First Order Loop.
3. LOOP COMPONENTS.
3.1 Phase Detector.
3.2 Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO).
3.3 Loop Filter.
3.3.3.2 Unintended Poles.
3.4 Filter Reference Voltage.
3.5 Note On the Form of the Filter Equation.
3.6 Capacitors in Loop Filters.
3.7 HigherOrder Filters.
4. LOOP RESPONSE .
4.1 Loop Order and Type.
4.2 ClosedLoop Equations.
4.3 OpenLoop EquationsLagLead Filter.
4.4 Loop with a Lag Filter.
4.5 Loop With an IntegratorandLead Filter.
4.6 Summary of Equations.
5. LOOP STABILITY.
5.1 Observing the OpenLoop Response.
5.2 Methods of Stability Analysis and Measures of Stability.
5.3 Stability of Various PLL Configurations.
5.4 Computing OpenLoop Gain and Phase.
5.5 Phase Margin versus Damping Factor.
6. TRANSIENT RESPONSE.
6.1 Step Response.
6.2 Envelope of the LongTerm Step Response.
6.3 Response to Ramp Input.
6.4 Response to Parabolic Input.
6.5 Other Responses.
6.6 Note on Units for Graphs.
6.7 Equivalent Circuit.
6.8 General LongTerm (SteadyState) Response Characteristics.
6.9 OpenLoop Equations in Terms of ClosedLoop Parameters.
6.10 More Complex Loops and State Space Analysis.
6.11 An Approximate Solution Using StateSpace Variables.
6.12 Effect of an Added Pole.
7. MODULATION RESPONSE.
7.1 Phase and Frequency Modulation.
7.2 Modulation Responses.
7.3 Responses in a FirstOrder Loop.
7.4 Transfer Functions in a SecondOrder Loop.
7.5 Transient Responses Between Various Points.
7.6 Magnitude and Phase of the Transfer Functions.
7.7 Related Responses.
7.8 Modulation and Demodulation in the SecondOrder Loop.
7.9 Measurement of Loop Parameters for α = 0 or 1 from Modulation Responses.
7.10 Effect of an Added Pole.
8. ACQUISITION.
8.1 Overview.
8.2 Acquisition and Lock In a FirstOrder Loop.
8.3 Acquisition Formulas For SecondOrder Loops With Sine Phase Detectors.
8.4 Approximate PullIn Analysis.
8.5 Phase Plane Analysis.
8.6 Pull Out.
8.7 Effect of Offsets.
8.8 Effect of Component Saturation.
8.9 Hangup.
8.10 Simulation of the Nonlinear loop.
9. ACQUISITION AIDS.
9.1 Coherent Detection  Lock Indicator.
9.2 Changing Loop Parameters Temporarily.
9.3 Automatic Tuning of ω<sub>c</sub> Frequency Discriminator.
9.4 Acquisition Aiding Logic.
9.5 Sweeping ω<sub>c</sub>, Type2 Loop.
9.6 Sweep Circuits.
10. APPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS.
10.1 Higher Order Loops.
10.2 Generalized VoltageControlled Oscillator.
10.3 Long Loop.
10.4 Carrier Recovery.
10.5 Data Synchronization.
10.6 Clock and Data Timing Control.
10.7 AllDigital PhaseLocked Loop (ADPLL).
10.8 Summary.
PART 2. PHASE LOCK IN NOISE.
11. PHASE MODULATION BY NOISE.
11.1 Representation of Noise Modulation.
11.2 Processing of Noise Modulation by the PhaseLocked Loop.
11.3 Phase and Frequency Variance.
11.4 Typical Oscillator Spectrums.
11.5 Limits on the Noise Spectrum  Infinite Variances.
11.6 Power Spectrum.
11.7 Frequency Multiplication and Division.
11.8 Other Representations.
12. RESPONSE TO PHASE NOISE.
12.1 Processing of Reference Phase Noise.
12.2 Processing of VCO Phase Noise.
12.3 Harmful Effect of Phase Noise in Radio Receivers.
12.4 Superposition.
12.5 Optimum Loop with Both Input and VCO Noise.
12.6 Multiple Loops.
12.7 Effects of Noise Injected Elsewhere.
12.8 Measuring Phase Noise.
13. REPRESENTATION OF ADDITIVE NOISE.
13.1 General.
13.2 Phase Modulation On the Signal.
13.3 Multiplicative Modulation On Quadrature Carriers.
13.4 Noise at the Phase Detector Output.
13.5 Restrictions on the Noise Models.
13.6 Does The Loop Lock to the Additive Noise?.
13.7 Other Types of Phase Detectors in the Presence of Noise.
13.8 Modified PD Characteristic With Noise.
14. LOOP RESPONSE TO ADDITIVE NOISE.
14.1 Noise Bandwidth.
14.2 SignaltoNoise in the Loop Bandwidth.
14.3 Loop Optimization in the Presence of Noise.
14.3.4 Optimum Loop for a Frequency Step Input.
14.3.5 Optimum Loop for a Frequency Ramp Input.
15. PHASELOCKED LOOP AS A DEMODULATOR.
15.1 Phase Demodulation.
15.2 Frequency Demodulation, Bandwidth Set By a Filter.
15.3 Frequency Discriminator, FirstOrder Loop.
15.4 Frequency Discriminator, SecondOrder Loop.
15.5 Expected Phase Error.
15.6 Summary of Frequency Discriminator S/N.
15.7 Standard Discriminator and Click Noise.
15.8 Clicks with a PLL.
15.9 Noise in a Carrier Recovery Loop.
16. PARAMETER VARIATION DUE TO NOISE.
16.1 Preview.
16.2 AGC.
16.3 Limiter.
16.4 Effects of Gain Variation on Loop Parameters.
16.5 Effect of AGC or Limiter on an Optimized Loop.
17. CYCLE SKIPPING DUE TO NOISE.
17.1 Output Phase.
17.2 Cycle Skipping, Mean Time.
17.3 Cycle Skipping, Mean Frequency.
17.4 Cycle Skipping with Mistuning.
17.5 Summary.
18. NONLINEAR OPERATION IN A LOCKED LOOP.
18.1 Notation.
18.2 PhaseDetector Output u1.
18.3 Changes in the Output Spectrum.
18.4 Gain Suppression, QuasiLinear Approximation.
19. ACQUISITION AIDS IN THE PRESENCE OF NOISE.
19.1 Sweeping with Plain ClosedLoop.
19.2 Reduction of Coherent Detector Output (ClosedLoop Sweeping).
19.3 ClosedLoop Sweeping in Noise with Coherent Detector.
20. BANDLIMITED NOISE.
20.1 Signals Centered in a Noise Band.
20.2 Eccentric Signals.
20.3 Extension to Other Types of Interference.
21. FURTHER INFORMATION .
21.1 Sources for Additional Studies in Phase Lock.
21.2 Sources Covering PhaseLocked Frequency Synthesis.
Author Information
William F. Egan, PhD, is Lecturer in Electrical Engineering at Santa Clara University, California, and formerly a principal engineer at TRW ESD and a senior technologist at GTE Government Systems. He received his PhD in electrical engineering from Stanford University.
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