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Fundamentals of Turbomachinery

ISBN: 978-0-470-12422-2
384 pages
December 2007
Fundamentals of Turbomachinery (0470124229) cover image
A comprehensive introduction to turbomachines and their applications

With up-to-date coverage of all types of turbomachinery for students and practitioners, Fundamentals of Turbomachinery covers machines from gas, steam, wind, and hydraulic turbines to simple pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors used throughout industry. After reviewing the history of turbomachinery and the fluid mechanical principles involved in their design and operation, the book focuses on the application and selection of machines for various uses, teaching basic theory as well as how to select the right machine for a specific use.

With a practical emphasis on engineering applications of turbomachines, this book discusses the full range of both turbines and pumping devices. For each type, the author explains:
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Basic principles
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Preliminary design procedure
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Ideal performance characteristics
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Actual performance curves published by the manufacturers
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Application and appropriate selection of the machine

Throughout, worked sample problems illustrate the principles discussed and end-of-chapter problems, employing both SI and the English system of units, provide practice to help solidify the reader's grasp of the material.
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List of Symbols.

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION.

1 1 Definition.

1 2 Types of Turbomachines.

1 3 Applications of Turbomachines.

1 4 Performance Characteristics.

1 5 Methods of Analysis.

1 6 Historical Evolution of Turbomachines.

1 7 Organization of the Book.

References.

Chapter 2: Dimensional Analysis.

2 1 Dimensions and Dimensional Homogeneity.

2 2 Buckingham Pi Theorem.

2 3 Other Nondimensional Parameters for Turbomachines.

2 4 Similarity Laws.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 3: Energy Transfer In Turbomachines.

3 1 Review on Fluid Mechanics Related to Turbomachinery.

3 2 Energy in Flowing Fluids.

3 3 Euler Equations.

3 4 Equations for Axial Flow Machines.

3 5 Equations for Mixed and Radial Flow Machines.

3 6 Degree of Reaction.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 4: Centrifugal Pumps.

4 1 Basic Construction and Classification.

4 2 Basic Working Principles.

4 3 Performance Characteristics.

4 4 Cavitation.

4 5 Performance Modifications.

4 6 Preliminary Design Procedure.

4 7 Pump Performance Tests.

4 8 Pumping Systems.

4 9 Pump Applications.

4 10 Pump Selections.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 5: Axial Flow Pumps and Fans.

5 1 Introduction.

5 2 Flow over Isolated Airfoils.

5 3 Axial Flow Cascade.

5 4 Preliminary Design Procedure.

5 5 Three Dimensional Flow Effects Radial Equilibrium Requirement.

5 6 Fans Test.

5 7 Fans Application.

5 8 Fans and Systems.

5 9 Fans Selection.

5 10 Propellers.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 6: Centrifugal Fans, Blowers and Compressors.

6 1 Classification.

6 2 Performance Parameters and Characteristics.

6 3 Change of Performance.

6 4 Polytropic Efficiency.

6 5 Preliminary Design of Centrifugal Fans.

6 6 Preliminary Design of Centrifugal Compressors.

6 7 Applications of Centrifugal Compressors.

6 8 Selection of Compressors.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 7: Axial Flow Compressors.

7 1 Introduction.

7 2 Basic Theory.

7 3 Preliminary Design of Compressor Stage.

7 4 Determination of Stage Efficiency.

7 5 Effects of Compressibility and Shock Waves.

7 6 Axial Flow Compressor Performance.

7 7 Surge and Stall in Compressor and the Remedies.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 8: Gas Turbines.

8 1 Introduction.

8 2 Thermodynamics of Axial Flow Turbine.

8 3 Degree of Reaction.

8 4 Preliminary Design Procedure for Turbine Stage.

8 5 Determination of Turbine Stage Efficiency.

8 6 Axial Flow Turbine Performance.

8 7 Compressor, Turbine Matching.

8 8 Radial Inflow Gas Turbine.

8 9 Thermodynamic Processes in Radial Inflow Gas Turbine.

8 10 Other Topics Related to Gas Turbine Engine.

8 11 Applications of Gas Turbine Engine.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 9: Steam Turbines.

9 1 Introduction.

9 2 Velocity Compounded Stage.

9 3 Classification of Steam Turbines.

9 4 Steam Turbines Parameters and Performance.

9 5 Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Plants.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 10: Hydraulic Turbines.

10 1 Introduction to Hydropower.

10 2 Types of Hydraulic Turbines.

10 3 Selection of Hydraulic Turbines.

10 4 Hydraulic Turbine Performance Characteristics.

10 5 Pelton Turbine.

10 6 Francis Turbine and Kaplan Turbine.

References.

Problems.

Chapter 11: Wind Turbines.

11 1 Introduction to Wind Power.

11 2 Actuator Theory.

11 3 Types of Wind Turbines.

11 4 Wind Turbines Characteristics and Preliminary Design Analysis.

11 5 Variable Speed Performance of Wind Turbines.

11 6 Wind Turbine Applications.

References.

Problems.

Appendix A: Review on Thermodynamics and Compressible Flow.

A 1 Thermodynamic Properties.

A 2 Thermodynamic Processes.

A 3 Other Thermo Flow Properties.

A 4 Adiabatic Efficiencies of Flow Components.

A 5 Thermodynamic Cycles.

A 6 Thermodynamic Cycles of Gas Turbine Engines.

A 7 Rankine Cycles with Vapor.

A 8 Compressible Flow through a Channel.

A 9 Normal Shock Waves.

A 10 Oblique Shock Waves.

References.

Problems.

Appendix B: Airfoil Characteristics.

B 1 Flow Over Objects.

B 2 Airfoil Geometry.

B 3 NACA Airfoil Specification.

References.

Appendix C: CFD Applications to Turbomachines Design and Flow Analysis.

Appendix D: Conversion Factors & Some Constants.

Appendix E: Thermodynamic Properties of Air and Water at STP.

Appendix F Internal Diameter of Standard Pipe of Schedule 40.

Appendix G Compressibility Chart.

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William W. Peng teaches in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State University, Fresno.

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1. Coverage of all types of turbomachines including pumps, fans, blowers, compressors, as well as gas, hydraulic, steam, and wind turbines.

2. Focus is not only on the design of turbomachines, but also on the application and selection of the various types of machines.

3. Includes numerous examples and problems to aid understanding and a solutions manual for professors teaching the course.

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