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Working Memory and Academic Learning: Assessment and Intervention

ISBN: 978-0-470-14419-0
408 pages
April 2008
Working Memory and Academic Learning: Assessment and Intervention (047014419X) cover image
Equipping school and child psychologists, and neuropsychologists with critical information on the role of working memory in learning and achievement, Working Memory and Academic Learning offers guidance on assessment tools, interventions, and current evidence-based best practices. Its specific, step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enables you to identify how working memory relates to academic attainment and how to apply this knowledge in professional practice.
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Foreword Elaine Fletcher-Janzen xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxi

CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Overview 1

What is Working Memory? 2

Working Memory versus Short-Term Memory 3

Controversies Surrounding Working Memory 4

Working Memory Measurement 5

Compatibility with Response-to-Intervention 6

Interventions for Working Memory 7

Learning Objectives 8

CHAPTER 2 Theories and Models of Working Memory 10

Information Processing Model 11

The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model 12

Levels-of-Processing Model 14

Baddeley’s Model 14

Contributions from Daneman and Carpenter 26

Kane and Engle’s Executive Attention Model 27

Cowan’s Embedded-Process Model 29

Oberauer’s Facet Theory 32

Long-Term Working Memory 33

Neuropsychological Evidence 35

The Controversy Over Working Memory Capacity 40

CHAPTER 3 An Integrated Model of Working Memory 49

The Structure of the Integrated Model 50

Definition of Working Memory 57

Descriptions of Memory Components 58

Capacity of Working Memory Operations 60

Caveat 61

Key Points 62

CHAPTER 4 Working Memory Development and Related Cognitive Processes 63

Development of Working Memory Capacity 64

Long-Term Memory 71

Expertise and Automatization 76

Deficit Models 76

Relations with Other Cognitive Processes 77

Disorders and Conditions with Working Memory Deficits 86

Conclusions and Implications 90

CHAPTER 5 Working Memory and Academic Learning 92

Working Memory and Learning Disabilities 95

Working Memory and Oral Language 97

Oral Language Disabilities 99

Working Memory and Reading 100

Working Memory and Mathematics 112

Working Memory and Written Language 120

Implications for Assessment, Instruction, and Intervention 121

CHAPTER 6 Working Memory Assessment Strategies 126

Working Memory Assessment Challenges 128

Distinguishing Between Short-Term and

Working Memory Measures 131

Short-Term and Working Memory Testing Paradigms 132

Hypothesis-Driven Assessment of Working Memory 140

Multimethod Assessment of Working Memory 145

Reviewing Records for History 145

Interviews 146

Observations 149

Cross-Battery and Selective Testing 151

Assessment Recommendations for Specific Disabilities 155

General Guidelines for Interpreting Test Scores 156

Analysis of Working Memory Test Scores 161

Interpretation of Working Memory Assessment Results 168

The Use of Nonstandardized Working Memory Measures 173

Key Points 174

CHAPTER 7 Using Cognitive Scales to Assess Working Memory 176

Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory and Working Memory 176

General Guidelines for Selecting Working Memory Subtests 178

General Guidelines for Administering Working Memory Subtests 179

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB5) 180

Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II) 183

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) 187

Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) 191

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) 195

Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) 199

The Wechsler Scales 201

WISC-IV Integrated 203

The NEPSY-II: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment 212

Key Points 215

CHAPTER 8 Assessing Working Memory with Memory Scales 217

Wechsler Memory Scales-Third Edition (WMS-III) 218

Children’s Memory Scale (CMS) 226

Test of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (TOMAL-2) 230

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (WRAML-2) 234

Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) 238

Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA) 243

Swanson Cognitive Processing Test (S-CPT) 246

Key Points 253

CHAPTER 9 Working Memory Interventions 258

General Approaches to Working Memory Interventions 260

General Strategy Training Procedures 262

Metacognitive Training 267

Metamemory Training 268

Working Memory Interventions 269

Mnemonics 280

Long-Term Memory Interventions 286

Phonological Processing Interventions 290

Reading Comprehension Strategies 292

Academic Skills and Automaticity 295

Working Memory Training in Children with ADHD 295

Medication 295

Computerized Working Memory Training 296

Classroom Instruction that Supports Working Memory 297

Key Points 305

CHAPTER 10 Case Studies, Reporting Results, and Recommendations 307

Applied Research Study 307

Case Studies 311

Written Interpretation of Working Memory Test Results 317

Illustrative Report 318

Oral Interpretation of Working Memory Test Results 323

Recommendations for Future Working Memory Tests 326

Appendix A Working Memory Subtests in Cognitive Scales 329

Appendix B Working Memory Assessment Plan 333

Appendix C Working Memory Analysis Worksheet 335

Appendix D Working Memory Interpretative Summary 337

Appendix E Working Memory Subtests in Memory Scales 339

Appendix F Conversion Table: Scaled Scores to Standard Scores 343

Appendix G Related Processing Subtests in Cognitive Scales 345

References 347

Index 371

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Milton J. Dehn, EdD, NCSP, is the cofounder andProgram Director of Schoolhouse Tutoring, an agency that provides assessment, tutoring, and instructional support forstudents of all ages and abilities. He is also author of Essentials of Processing Assessment (Wiley).

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"…it is a gold mine of useful and interesting information for anyone who works with children experiencing academic difficulties, including specific learning disabilities involving oral language, reading and mathematics. Working Memory presents a good summary of current models of working memory and its relationship to other cognitive systems, including long-term memory." (PsycCRITIQUES, February 18th, 2009)
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