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Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Design, Evaluation, and Selection

ISBN: 978-0-470-16558-4
348 pages
October 2012
Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards: Design, Evaluation, and Selection (0470165588) cover image

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical for those dealing with toxic, infectious, and radioactive materials. An easily accessible guide for professionals and researchers in all PPE fields, this book takes a fresh look at how PPE is designed, selected, and used in today's emergency response environment where users may need to be protected against deliberately used chemical, biological, or radiological agents in terrorism or warfare scenarios as well as more traditional hazards. Covering the physics, chemistry, and physiology of these hazards, the book explains how PPE protects from various forms of hazards as well as how to use this information to select PPE against these highly hazardous substances for first responder or military users. The design of PPE and components plus relevant performance and evaluation standards are also discussed.

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Acknowledgements iv

Table of contents v

List of figures xvi

List of tables xx

List of abbreviations and acronyms xxiv

1 Introduction to CBRN protection 27

1.1 What is CBRN PPE and why is it used? 27

1.2 What are CBRN agents? 28

1.3 Context of use as it relates to design, selection and performance 31

1.4 Acquiring equipment 32

2 Hazardous substances 39

2.1 General overview of agents 39

2.2 Dose and exposure 40

2.3 Routes of entry 40

2.4 Forms of agent leading to exposure 44

2.5 Effects of hazardous materials 47

2.6 Chemical hazards 48

2.7 Biological hazards 54

2.8 Radiological/nuclear agents 68

2.9 Summary of dissemination of CBRN agents 72

3 Setting high-level requirements 76

3.1 Defining concepts of operations 76

3.2 Military operations 77

3.3 Domestic response 79

3.4 Hazard assessment 83

3.5 Exposure limits 90

3.6 Human factors and task requirements 101

3.7 Examples of high-level requirements development discussions 103

4 Designing for appropriate protection and performance 108

4.1 The hazard 108

4.2 Mechanisms of protection 111

4.3 Human factors 121

4.4 The environment 131

4.5 Materials and their selection 132

4.6 System Design 153

4.7 Modeling of performance and human physiology 169

5 Protective equipment: Concepts, components and systems 175

5.1 Terminology 175

5.2 Concepts of use 175

5.3 Respiratory protective devices 176

5.4 Dermal protective equipment (clothing) 194

6 Performance evaluation and standard test methods 207

6.1 Test selection as determined by life cycle phase 207

6.2 Issues that may prevent effective evaluations 209

6.3 Selection of test conditions 211

6.4 Designing methods and setting criteria 231

6.5 Sources of methods 245

6.6 Preconditioning and pretreating 246

6.7 Physical properties and survivability 248

6.8 CBRN performance 264

6.9 Human factors 286

7 Selection and use of PPE 303

7.1 Operational requirements 303

7.2 Expected levels of performance from various styles of equipment 305

7.3 Performance and selection standards and regulations 315

Bibliography 336

Index 374

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EVA F. Gudgin Dickson, PhD, has worked in chemical, biological, and radiological protection for some twenty years. She is currently an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Royal Military College of Canada and a Defence Scientist with Defence Research and Development Canada. Dr. Dickson heads a diverse group of scientists, engineers, and students who research the requirements, standards, and evaluation of chemical, biological, and radiological protective equipment as well as design new equipment. She has received three Technical Cooperation Programme Achievement Awards and the Canadian Standards Association Award of Merit.

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