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Sustainable Development in the Process Industries: Cases and Impact

J. Harmsen (Editor), Joseph B. Powell (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-470-18779-1
270 pages
March 2010
Sustainable Development in the Process Industries: Cases and Impact (0470187794) cover image
The complete, hands-on guide to sustainable development

Today's process industries must develop natural resources within an eco-friendly framework that balances current demand with future need. Realizing this goal necessitates global vigilance of three key areas—people, planet, and prosperity—known as the Triple Bottom Line or, simply, the Triple P.

Sustainable Development in the Process Industries details how worldwide implementation of sustainable processes in present-day industries can positively influence the Triple P going forward by lowering poverty, reducing pollution, and conserving resources. This in-depth guide includes:

  • Real-world case studies and examples

  • Individual chapters written by industry experts

  • Application in industries such as petroleum and fuel, food, recycling, mineral processing, and water processing

  • Focus on the micro (molecules, unit operations, processes) to the macro (industrial sites, value chains, regions, the world)

Providing lessons with practical application rather than pure theory, Sustainable Development in the Process Industries offers sound solutions to social, ecological, and economic challenges imperative to assuring our planet's well-being for generations.

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Contributors ix

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1
Jan Harmsen

1.1 Reason for This Book, 1

1.2 Scope of the Book, 2

1.3 Use in Education, 2

1.4 Use in Industry, 3

2 Sustainability Metrics, Indicators, and Indices for the Process Industries 5
Joseph B. Powell

2.1 Overview and Scope, 5

2.2 Hierarchy of SD Metrics, Indices, and Indicators, 7

2.3 Practical Tools for the Process Industries, 10

2.4 Summary and Conclusions, 17

References, 19

3 Resource Effi ciency of Chemical Manufacturing Chains: Present and Future 23
Jean-Paul Lange

3.1 Introduction, 23

3.2 Resource Efficiency, 24

3.3 Economic Impact, 32

3.4 Conclusions, 35

References, 35

4 Regional Integration of Processes, Agriculture, and Society 39
Michael Narodoslawsky

4.1 The Formative Character of Raw Materials, 39

4.2 The Systemic Engineering Challenge, 44

4.3 Regional Integration of Technologies, 46

References, 57

5 Eco-industrial Parks in The Netherlands: The Rotterdam Harbor and Industry Complex 59
L. W. Baas and G. Korevaar

5.1 Introduction, 59

5.2 Industrial Ecosystem Programs in Rotterdam, 60

5.3 Conclusions, 76

References, 78

6 By-product Synergy Networks: Driving Innovation Through Waste Reduction and Carbon Mitigation 81
Andrew Mangan and Elsa Olivetti

6.1 Introduction, 81

6.2 BPS Origins, 83

6.3 The BPS Process, 87

6.4 Barriers and Challenges, 94

6.5 Benefi ts and Opportunities, 97

6.6 Examples, 100

6.7 Conclusions, 106

References, 106

7 Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass For Energy and Chemicals: Technologies at Various Scales 109
R. H. Venderbosch and W. Prins

7.1 Introduction, 109

7.2 Oil Properties, 114

7.3 Fast Pyrolysis Process Technologies, 120

7.4 Mass and Energy Balance for Production of Bio-oil and Char in a 2-ton/h Wood Plant, 136

7.5 Bio-oil Fuel Applications, 139

7.6 Chemicals from Bio-oil, 144

7.7 Economics, 148

7.8 Concluding Remarks, 149

References, 150

8 Integrated Corn-Based Biorefi nery: A Study in Sustainable Process Development 157
Carina Maria Alles and Robin Jenkins

8.1 Introduction, 157

8.2 Technology Development for an Integrated Corn-Based Biorefi nery, 159

8.3 LCA Results: ICBR Versus Benchmarks, 165

8.4 Final Refl ections, 168

References, 169

9 Cellulosic Biofuels: A Sustainable Option for Transportation 171
Jean-Paul Lange, Iris Lewandowski, and Paul M. Ayoub

9.1 Introduction, 171

9.2 Case Studies, 175

9.3 Sustainability of Biomass Production, 183

9.4 Conclusions and Recommendations for R&D Activities, 194

Note Added in Proof, 196

References, 196

10 Integrated Urea–Melamine Process at DSM: Sustainable Product Development 199
Tjien T. Tjioe and Johan T. Tinge

10.1 Short Summary of Melamine Development, 199

10.2 Current Uses of Melamine, 200

10.3 Urea Production, 201

10.4 Conventional DSM Stamicarbon Gas-Phase Melamine Production Process, 202

10.5 New Integrated Urea–Melamine Process, 205

10.6 Conclusions, 207

References, 207

11 Sustainable Innovation in the Chemical Industry and Its Commercial Impacts 209
Joseph B. Powell

11.1 Overview, 209

11.2 Historical Perspective, 210

11.3 Innovations in the Age of Sustainability, 212

11.4 Sustainability Driven by Innovation and Performance, 215

References, 216

12 Implementation of Sustainable Strategies in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Based on the Concept of Cleaner Production 219
Johannes Fresner and Jan Sage

12.1 Overview, 219

12.2 Active Strategies for Sustainable Management, 220

12.3 Eloxieranstalt A. Heuberger GmbH: Sustainable Management in an Anodizing Plant, 221

12.4 Analysis of the Results, 226

12.5 Implementation of Sustainable Strategies, 230

Appendix: A Successful Regional Cleaner Production Project, 231

References, 236

13 Sustainable Concepts in Metals Recycling and Mineral Processing 237
Nitosh Kumar Brahma

13.1 Overview, 237

13.2 Bioleaching Process Design and Development, 238

13.3 Bioleaching Reactor Design: Applicability of the Core Particle Model, 241

13.4 Industrial Applications, 243

13.5 Conclusions, 245

References, 246

14 Industrial Ecosystem Principles in Industrial Symbiosis: By-product Synergy 249
Qingzhong Wu

14.1 Introduction, 249

14.2 Relationship Between Industrial Symbiosis and Sustainable Development, 250

14.3 Challenges, Barriers, and Countermeasures in Exploration, Evaluation, and Implementation of Industrial Symbiosis, 252

14.4 What By-Product Synergy Is and Is Not, 253

14.5 Work Process and Successful Cases of Industrial Symbiosis, 254

14.6 Conclusions and Recommendations, 261

References, 263

Index 265

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Jan Harmsen is principal process developer at Shell. He has thirty-two years of industrial experience at Shell with positions in the following departments: exploratory research, development, process design, and chemicals manufacturing. He is also, since 1997, part-time Hoogewerff Professor of Sustainable Chemical Technology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

Joseph B. Powell is Shell's Chief Scientist, Chemical Engineering. He joined the Process Development Department at Shell's Westhollow Technology Center (Houston) in 1988, where he has led major R&D programs. Dr. Powell has been granted forty-five U.S. patents and several industry awards, including the A. D. Little Award for Chemical Engineering Innovation (AIChE 1998).

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