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Reactive Distillation Design and Control

ISBN: 978-0-470-22612-4
574 pages
October 2008
Reactive Distillation Design and Control (0470226129) cover image
After an overview of the fundamentals, limitations, and scope of reactive distillation, this book uses rigorous models for steady-state design and dynamic analysis of different types of reactive distillation columns and quantitatively compares the economics of reactive distillation columns with conventional multi-unit processes. It goes beyond traditional steady-state design that primarily considers the capital investment and energy costs when analyzing the control structure and the dynamic robustness of disturbances, and discusses how to maximize the economic and environmental benefits of reactive distillation technology.
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Chapter1: Introduction

1.1 History

1.2 Basics of Reactive Distillation

1.3 Neat Operation versus Excess Reactant

1.4 Limitations

1.5 Scope

1.6 Computational Methods

1.7 References

PART 1: STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF IDEAL QUATERNARY SYSTEM

Chapter 2: Parameter Effects

2.1 Effect of Holdup on Reactive Trays

2.2 Effect of Number of Reactive Trays

2.3 Effect of Pressure

2.4 Effect of Chemical Equilibrium Constant

2.5 Effect of Relative Volatilities

2.6 Effect of Number of Stripping and Rectifying Trays

2.7 Effect of Reactant Feed Location

2.8 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Economic Comparison of Reactive Distillation with a Conventional Process

3.1 Conventional Multi-Unit Process

3.2 Reactive Distillation Design

3.3 Results for Different Chemical Equilibrium Constants

3.4 Results for Temperature-Dependent Relative Volatilities

3.5 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Neat Operation versus Using Excess Reactant

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Neat Reactive Column

4.3 Two-Column System with Excess B

4.4 Two-Column System with 20% Excess A

4.5 Economic Comparison

4.6 Conclusion

PART 2: STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF OTHER IDEAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 5: Ternary Reactive Distillation Systems

5.1 Ternary System without Inerts

5.2 Ternary System with Inerts

5.3 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Ternary Decomposition Reaction

6.1 Intermediate Boiling Reactant

6.2 Heavy Key Reactant with Two Column Configuration

6.3 Heavy Key Reactant with One Column Configuration

6.4 Conclusion

PART 3: STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF REAL CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 7: Steady-State Design for Acetic Acid Esterification

7.1 Reaction Kinetics and Phase Equilibrium

7.2 Process Flowsheets

7.3 Steady-State Design

7.4 Process Characteristics

7.5 Discussion

7.6 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Design of TAME Reactive Distillation Systems

8.1 Chemical Kinetics and Phase Equilibrium

8.2 Component Balances

8.3 Effect of Parameters on Reactive Column

8.4 Pressure-Swing Methanol Separation Section

8.5 Extractive Distillation Methanol Separation Section

8.6 Economic Comparison

8.7 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Design of MTBE and ETBE Reactive Distillation Columns

9.1 MTBE Process

9.2 ETBE Process

9.3 Conclusion

PART 4: CONTROL OF IDEAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 10: Control of Quaternary Reactive Distillation Columns

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Steady-State Design

10.3 Control Structures

10.4 Selection of Control Tray Location

10.5 Closedloop Performance

10.6 Using More Reactive Trays

10.7 Increasing Holdup on Reactive Trays

10.8 Rangeability

10.9 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Control of Excess-Reactant System

11.1 Control Degrees of Freedom

11.2 Single Reactive Column Control Structures

11.3 Control of Two-Column System

11.4 Conclusion

Chapter 12: Control of Ternary Reactive Distillation Columns

12.1 Ternary System without Inerts

12.2 Ternary System with Inerts

12.3 Ternary A⇔B+C System: Intermediate Boiling Reactant

12.4 Ternary A⇔B+C System: Heavy Reactant with Two-Column Configuration

12.5 Ternary A⇔B+C System: Heavy Reactant with Single Column

PART 5: CONTROL OF REAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 13: Control of MeAc/ EtAc/IPAc/BuAc/AmAc Systems

13.1 Process Characteristic

13.2 Control Structure Design

13.3 Extension to Composition Control

13.4 Conclusion

Chapter 14: Control of TAME Plantwide Process

14.1 Process Studied

14.2 Control Structure

14.3 Results

14.4 Conclusion

Chapter 15 Control of MTBE and ETBE Reactive Distillation Columns

15.1 MTBE Control

15.2 ETBE Control

PART 6: HYBRID AND NON-CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 16: Design and Control of Column/Side- Reactor Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Design for Quaternary Ideal System

16.3 Control of Quaternary Ideal System

16.4 Design of Column/Side-Reactor Process for Ethyl Acetate System

16.5 Control of Column/Side-Reactor Process for Ethyl Acetate System

16.6 Conclusion

Chapter 17: Effect of Boiling Point Rankings on the Design of Reactive Distillation

17.1 Process and Classification

17.2 Process Configurations

17.3 Relaxation and Convergence

17.4 Results and Discussion

17.5 Conclusion

Chapter 18: Effects of Feed Tray Locations on the Design and Control of Reactive Distillation

18.1 Process Characteristics

18.2 Effects of Relative Volatilities

18.3 Effects of Reaction Kinetics

18.4 Operation and Control

18.5 Conclusion

APPENDIX

A1. Reference

A2. Catalog of Types of Real Reactive Distillation Systems

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William L. Luyben, PHD, is Professor of Chemical Engineering at Lehigh University. In addition to forty years of teaching, Dr. Luyben spent nine years as an engineer with Exxon and DuPont. He has written nine books and more than 200 papers. He was the 2004 recipient of the Computing Practice Award from the CAST Division of the AIChE and was elected in 2005 to the Process Automation Hall of Fame. CHENG-CHING YU, PHD, has spent sixteen years as a Professor at National Taiwan University of Science and Technology and four years at National Taiwan University. He has published over 100 technical papers in the areas of plant-wide process control, reactive distillation, control of microelectronic processes, and modeling of fuel cell systems.

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