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Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production

ISBN: 978-0-470-24848-5
296 pages
February 2011
Metallurgy and Corrosion Control in Oil and Gas Production (0470248483) cover image


This book is intended for engineers and related professionals in the oil and gas production industries. It is intended for use by personnel with limited backgrounds in chemistry, metallurgy, and corrosion and will give them a general understanding of how and why corrosion occurs and the practical approaches to how the effects of corrosion can be mitigated. It is also an asset to the entry-level corrosion control professional who may have a theoretical background in metallurgy, chemistry, or a related field, but who needs to understand the practical limitations of large-scale industrial operations associated with oil and gas production. While the may use by technicians and others with limited formal technical training, it will be written on a level intended for use by engineers having had some exposure to college-level chemistry and some familiarity with materials and engineering design.
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Introduction to Oilfi eld Metallurgy and Corrosion Control 1

Costs, 1

Safety, 2

Environmental Damage, 2

Corrosion Control, 3

2 Chemistry of Corrosion 4

Electrochemistry of Corrosion, 4

Electrochemical Reactions, 4

Electrolyte Conductivity, 5

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis, 5

Electrode Potentials and Current, 5

Corrosion Rate Expressions, 8

pH, 10

Passivity, 10

Potential-pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams, 11

3 Corrosive Environments 13

External Environments, 13

Atmospheric Corrosion, 14

Water as a Corrosive Environment, 15

Soils as Corrosive Environments, 16

Corrosion under Insulation, 17

Internal Environments, 18

Crude Oil, 19

Natural Gas, 19

Oxygen, 19

CO2, 20

H2S, 22

Organic Acids, 27

Scale, 27

Microbially Infl uenced Corrosion (MIC), 28

Mercury, 31

Hydrates, 31

Fluid Flow Effects on Corrosion, 33

4 Materials 36

Metallurgy Fundamentals, 36

Crystal Structure, 36

Strengthening Methods, 37

Mechanical Properties, 38

Fracture, 42

Creep, 45

Thermal Expansion, 45

Forming Methods, 45

Wrought versus Cast Structures, 45

Welding, 46

Materials Specifi cations, 49

API, 49

AISI—The American Iron and Steel Institute, 49

ASTM International—formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials, 49

ASME, 49

SAE International, 49

UNS, 50

NACE—The Corrosion Society, 50

Other Organizations, 50

Use of Materials Specifi cations, 50

Carbon Steels, Cast Irons, and Low-Alloy Steels, 51

Classifi cations of Carbon Steel, 52

Strengthening Methods for Carbon Steels, 53

Heat Treatment of Carbon Steels, 53

Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) Steels, 54

Carbon Equivalents and Weldability, 54

Hard Spots, 55

Cleanliness of Steel, 55

Cast Irons, 55

CRAs, 55

Iron-Nickel Alloys, 56

Stainless Steels, 56

Nickel-Based Alloys, 60

Cobalt-Based Alloys, 61

Titanium Alloys, 62

Copper Alloys, 63

Aluminum Alloys, 66

Additional Considerations with CRAs, 68

Polymers, Elastomers, and Composites, 70

5 Forms of Corrosion 75

Introduction, 75

General Corrosion, 75

Galvanic Corrosion, 77

Galvanic Coupling of Two or More Metals, 77

Area Ratio, 78

Polarity Reversal, 83

Conductivity of the Electrolyte, 83

Control of Galvanic Corrosion, 83

Pitting Corrosion, 84

Occluded Cell Corrosion, 84

Pitting Corrosion Geometry and Stress Concentration, 85

Pitting Initiation, 85

Pitting Resistance Equivalent Numbers (PRENs), 86

Statistics, 86

Prevention of Pitting Corrosion, 86

Crevice Corrosion, 87

Alloy Selection, 88

Filiform Corrosion, 88

Intergranular Corrosion, 89

Stainless Steels, 89

Corrosion Parallel to Forming Directions, 90

Aluminum, 90

Other Alloys, 91

Dealloying, 91

Mechanism, 91

Selective Phase Attack, 91

Susceptible Alloys, 92

Control, 92

Erosion Corrosion, 92

Mechanism, 92

Velocity Effects, 93

Materials, 95

Cavitation, 95

Areas of Concern, 95

Control, 98

Environmentally Induced Cracking, 98

SCC, 99

HE and H2 S-Related Cracking, 101

Hydrogen Attack, 105

Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME), 105

Corrosion Fatigue, 106

Other Forms of Corrosion Important to Oilfi eld Operations, 107

Oxygen Attack, 107

Sweet Corrosion, 107

Sour Corrosion, 108

Mesa Corrosion, 108

Top-of-the-Line (TOL) Corrosion, 108

Wire Line Corrosion, 109

Additional Forms of Corrosion Found in Oil and Gas Operations, 109

Additional Comments, 113

6 Corrosion Control 117

Protective Coatings, 117

Paint Components, 117

Coating Systems, 118

Corrosion Protection by Paint Films, 118

Desirable Properties of Protective Coating Systems, 119

Developments in Coatings Technology, 120

Useful Publications, 120

Surface Preparation, 120

Purposes of Various Coatings, 123

Generic Binder Classifi cations, 124

Coatings Suitable for Various Service

Environments or Applications, 126

Coatings Inspection, 126

Areas of Concern and Inspection Concentration, 131

Linings, Wraps, Greases, and Waxes, 133

Coatings Failures, 137

Metallic Coatings, 143

Water Treatment and Corrosion Inhibition, 146

Oil Production Techniques, 147

Water Analysis, 148

Gas Stripping and Vacuum Deaeration, 148

Corrosion Inhibitors, 148

Cathodic Protection, 154

How Cathodic Protection Works, 155

Types of Cathodic Protection, 157

Cathodic Protection Criteria, 168

Inspection and Monitoring, 170

Cathodic Protection Design Procedures, 174

Additional Topics Related to Cathodic Protection, 177

Summary of Cathodic Protection, 180

Standards for Cathodic Protection, 180

7 Inspection, Monitoring, and Testing 186

Inspection, 187

Visual Inspection (VI), 187

Penetrant Testing (PT), 188

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT), 188

Ultrasonic Inspection (UT), 189

Radiography (RT), 190

Eddy Current, 191

Positive Material Identifi cation (PMI), 192

Thermography, 192

Additional Remarks about Inspection, 193

Monitoring, 193

Monitoring Probes, 193

Mass-Loss Coupons and Probes, 194

Electrical Resistance (ER) Probes, 197

Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Monitoring Techniques, 197

Hydrogen Probes, 200

Sand Monitoring, 201

Fluid Analysis, 201

Bacterial Growth Monitoring, 203

Additional Comments on Monitoring, 204

Testing, 204

Hydrostatic Testing, 204

Laboratory and Field Trial Testing, 204

8 Oilfield Equipment 209

Drilling and Exploration, 209

Wireline, 212

Coiled Tubing, 212

Wells and Wellhead Equipment, 213

History of Production, 214

Downhole Corrosive Environments, 214

Tubing, Casing, and Capillary Tubing, 220

Inhibitors for Tubing and Casing in Production Wells, 223

Internally Coated Tubing for Oilfi eld Wells, 226

Material and Corrosion Concerns with Artifi cial Lift Systems, 228

Wellheads, Christmas Trees, and Related Equipment, 231

Facilities and Surface Equipment, 233

Piping, 233

Storage Tanks, 236

Heat Exchangers, 238

Other Equipment, 241

Bolting and Fasteners, 241

Flares, 249

Corrosion under Insulation, 249

Pipelines and Flowlines, 249

Pipeline Problems and Failures, 252

Forms of Corrosion Important in Pipelines and Flowlines, 253

Repairs and Derating Due to Corrosion, 254

Casings for Road and Railway Crossings, 255

Pipeline Materials, 256

Hydrotesting, 257

External Corrosion, 257

Internal Corrosion, 260

Inspection and Condition Assessment, 262

References, 265

Index 270

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Author Information

Robert Heidersbach, PhD, is the President of Dr. Rust, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in corrosion, metallurgy, and materials consulting for a variety of international clients, including oil and gas production, military hardware, construction, litigation, and failure analysis. He was previously a faculty member in ocean engineering at the University of Rhode Island, chemical engineering at Oklahoma State, and metallurgy and materials engineering at California Polytechnic State University.
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“University teachers, scientists and researchers and in particular their undergraduate and postgraduate students, preparing their graduate theses will benefit from reading, employing and owing this well-organized volume.”  (Materials and Corrosion, 1 November 2012)

"Overall I liked this book. Most professional books are not cheap and neither is this one. However, whereas I have found many such books do not altogther justify their price tags, this one does." (TCE- The Chemical Engineer, 1 November 2011)

"It is also an asset to the entry-level corrosion control professional who may have a theoretical background in metallurgy, chemistry, or a related field, but who needs to understand the practical limitations of large-scale industrial operations associated with oil and gas production." (Breitbart.com: Business Wire, 22 February 2011)

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