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High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications

ISBN: 978-0-470-27681-5
264 pages
October 2011, Wiley-IEEE Press
High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications (0470276819) cover image
Sets forth the steps needed to protect critical telecommunications circuits from power faults and lightning in high voltage environments

The need to protect telecommunications circuits from power faults and lightning has never been greater: when power outages or system disturbances occur, reliable telecommunications are essential. With this book as their guide, readers will know what they need to do (and not do) to protect critical telecommunications circuits and equipment located in high voltage environments such as electrical power plants, substations, and power towers. Moreover, the book explains how to get the job done safely, detailing the proper implementation of safety procedures and the use of protective equipment to eliminate or minimize risk.

Setting the foundation, the book begins with an overview of the problem, key issues, industry standards, and safety concerns. Next, it covers:

  • Definitions and fundamentals of electric power systems, with regard to HVPT applications
  • Causes, boundary conditions, and calculations of ground potential rise
  • Critical telecommunications circuits that must be protected in high voltage environments
  • Protection schemes and equipment to resolve ground potential rise problems
  • Effective installation and testing of high voltage interface equipment
  • Personal safety for telecommunications personnel working with equipment in high voltage environments

Throughout the book, the author refers to accepted industry standards and best practices. Written by one of the most respected professional trainers in the telecommunications industry, High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications can be used for professional training courses or self-study. It will enable readers to protect critical data and voice communications circuits from high voltage events and protect themselves during equipment installation and maintenance.

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Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Author xv

1 Overview of High Voltage Protection for Telecommunications 1

Basic Purpose and Applications, 2

The HV Protection Challenge, 3

HV Isolation Standards, 7

2 Electric Power System Fundamentals 11

Power Terminology for Telecommunications, 12

Electric Power System Overview, 21

AC Voltage Generation, 23

Substation Equipment, 31

Transmission Lines, 44

Distribution Lines, 45

System Protection Equipment and Concepts, 47

3 Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and Zone of Influence 63

Introduction to Ground Potential Rise (GPR), 64

GPR, 65

GPR Locations, 66

Factors Affecting GPR, 71

Calculation of GPR, 86

ZOI, 88

Earth Resistivity, 91

GPR and ZOI Calculation Methods, 95

Lightning Faults, 107

Electromagnetic Induction under Fault Conditions, 109

Total Electrical Cable Stress, 118

The Role of Protection Engineers, 119

4 Critical Telecommunications Circuits in HV Environments 121

General, 122

Service Performance Objectives (SPOs), 122

North America Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Standards, 125

Protective Relaying Schemes that Require Class A Circuits, 126

Power Applications that Require Class B Circuits, 131

Power Communication Service Types, 136

Smart Grid and Cyber Security, 139

5 High Voltage Protection Equipment 143

General, 144

Basic Shunt Protection, 144

Levels of Protection, 149

Special Consideration for Nearby Facilities, 166

6 Level III HV Protection Equipment, Installation, and Testing 167

General, 168

Level III Copper HVI Components, 169

Copper HVI System Design, 181

Copper HVI Installation Examples, 191

Copper HVI System Initial Testing, 195

Copper HVI Maintenance and Inspection, 197

Fiber HVI Systems Installation, 199

Fiber HVI Installation Examples, 202

Wireless Sites on Electrical Power Towers, 205

Protection at Non-Power Company Locations, 211

7 Personnel Safety Working with HV Protection Equipment 217

Electrical Safety, 218

Electrical Protection Priorities, 218

Touch and Step Potentials, 219

Glossary 227

Appendix: Service Request Form 231

Bibliography 235

Index 237

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STEVEN W. BLUME is President and CEO of Applied Professional Training, Inc., a world-class technical training company serving both the electric power and telecommunications industries. Mr. Blume has extensive experience in power systems planning, design, construction, and operations of major power plants, lines and substations. His telecommunications experience includes work with fiber optics, microwave, radio, power line carrier, and copper systems in high voltage environ/ments.
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“It is certainly a worthwhile book for anyone who needs to understand the theory of basic telecommunication
circuit protection and the practical protection methods in use today.”  (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine,
1 January 2013)



 

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