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Corrosion and Corrosion Control, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-27725-6
512 pages
May 2008
Corrosion and Corrosion Control, 4th Edition (0470277254) cover image
This Fourth Edition presents an updated overview of the essential aspects of corrosion science and engineering that underpin the tools and technologies used for managing corrosion, enhancing reliability, and preventing failures. Select features of this new edition include: expanded discussions on electrochemical polarization, predicting corrosion using thermodynamics, steel reinforcements in concrete, and applications of corrosion control technologies in various industries; and a stronger emphasis on environmental concerns and regulations in the context of their impact on corrosion engineering.
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1. Definition and Importance of Corrosion.

1.1 Definition of Corrosion.

Corrosion Science and Engineering.

1.2 Importance of Corrosion.

1.3 Risk Management.

1.4 Causes of Corrosion.

Change in Gibbs Free Energy.

Pilling-Bedworth Ratio.

1.5 References.

1.6 General References.

1.7 Problems.

2. Electrochemical Mechanisms.

2.1 The Dry-cell Analogy and Faraday’s Law.

2.2 Definition of Anode and Cathode.

2.3 Types of Cells.

2.4 Forms of Corrosion.

2.5 References.

2.6 General References.

2.7 Problems.

3. Thermodynamics: Corrosion Tendency and Electrode Potentials.

3.1 Change of Gibbs Free Energy, ?G.

3.2 Measuring the Emf of a Cell.

3.3 Calculating the Half-Cell Potential - The Nernst Equation .

3.4 The Hydrogen Electrode and Standard Hydrogen Scale.

3.5 Calculation of EMF.

3.6 Measurement of pH.

3.7 The Oxygen Electrode and Differential Aeration Cell.

3.8 The EMF and Galvanic Series.

3.9 Liquid Junction Potentials.

3.10 Reference Electrodes.

Calomel Reference Electrode.

Silver-Silver Chloride Reference Electrode.

Saturated Copper-Copper Sulfate Reference Electrode.

3.11 References.

3.12 General References.

3.13 Problems.

4. Thermodynamics: Pourbaix Diagrams.

4.1 Basis of Pourbaix Diagrams.

4.2 Pourbaix Diagram for Water.

4.3 Pourbaix Diagram for Iron.

4.4 Pourbaix Diagram for Aluminum.

4.5 Pourbaix Diagram for Magnesium.

4.6 Limitations of Pourbaix Diagrams.

4.7 References.

4.8 General Reference .

4.9 Problems.

5. Kinetics: Polarization and Corrosion Rates.

5.1 Polarization.

5.2 The Polarized Cell.

5.3 How Polarization Is Measured.

Calculation of IR Drop in an Electrolyte.

5.4 Causes of Polarization.

5.5 Hydrogen Overpotential.

5.6 Polarization Diagrams of Corroding Metals.

5.7 Influence of Polarization on Corrosion Rate.

5.8 Calculation of Corrosion Rates from Polarization Data.

5.9 Anode-Cathode Area Ratio.

5.10 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

5.11 Theory of Cathodic Protection.

5.12 References.

5.13 General References.

5.14 Problems.

6. Passivity.

6.1 Definition.

6.2 Characteristics of Passivation and the Flade Potential.

6.3 Behavior of Passivators.

Passivation of Iron by HNO3.

6.4 Anodic Protection and Transpassivity.

6.5 Theories of Passivity.

More Stable Passive Films with Time.

Action of Chloride Ions and Passive-Active Cells.

Critical Pitting Potential (CPP).

6.6 Critical Pitting Potential.

6.7 Critical Pitting Temperature .

6.8 Passivity of Alloys.

Nickel-Copper Alloys.

Other Alloys.

6.9 Effect of Cathodic Polarization and Catalysis.

6.10 References.

6.11 General References.

6.12 Problems.

7. Iron and Steel.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Aqueous Environments.

Effect of Dissolved Oxygen.

Air-Saturated Water.

Higher Partial Pressures of Oxygen.

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC).

Effect of Temperature.

Effect of pH.

Corrosion of Iron in Acids.

Effect of Galvanic Coupling.

Effect of Velocity on Corrosion in Natural Waters.

Cavitation-Erosion.

Effect of Dissolved Salts.

Natural-Water Salts.

7.3 Metallurgical Factors.

Varieties of Iron and Steel.

Effects of Composition.

Galvanic Effects through Coupling of Different Steels.

Effect of Heat Treatment.

7.4 Steel Reinforcements in Concrete.

7.5 References.

7.6 General References.

7.7 Problems.

8. Effect of Stress.

8.1 Cold Working.

8.2 Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Iron and Steel.

8.3 Mechanism of Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Steel and Other Metals.

Electrochemical Dissolution Theory.

Stress-Sorption Cracking.

Initiation of Stress-Corrosion Cracking and Critical Potentials.

Rate of Crack Growth (Fracture Mechanics).

8.4 Hydrogen Cracking.

Mechanism of Hydrogen Cracking.

Effect of Metal Flaws.

8.5 Radiation Damage.

8.6 Corrosion Fatigue.

Critical Minimum Corrosion Rates.

Remedial Measures.

Mechanism of Corrosion Fatigue.

8.7 Fretting Corrosion.

Mechanism of Fretting Corrosion.

Remedial Measures.

8.8 References.

8.9 General References.

8.10 Problems.

9. Atmospheric Corrosion.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Types of Atmospheres.

9.3 Corrosion-Product Films.

9.4 Factors Influencing Corrosivity of the Atmosphere.

Particulate Matter.

Gases in the Atmosphere.

Moisture (Critical Humidity).

9.5 Remedial Measures.

9.6 References.

9.7 General References.

9.8 Problems.

10. Corrosion in Soils .

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Factors Affecting the Corrosivity of Soils.

10.3 Bureau of Standards Tests.

Pitting Characteristics.

10.4 Stress-Corrosion Cracking.

10.5 Remedial Measures.

10.6 References.

10.7 General References.

11. Oxidation.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Initial Stages.

11.3 Thermodynamics of Oxidation: Free Energy-Temperature Diagram.

11.4 Protective and Nonprotective Scales.

Three Equations of Oxidation.

11.5 Wagner Theory of Oxidation.

11.6 Oxide Properties and Oxidation.

11.7 Galvanic Effects and Electrolysis of Oxides.

11.8 Hot Ash Corrosion.

11.9 Hot Corrosion.

11.10 Oxidation of Copper.

Internal Oxidation.

Reaction with Hydrogen ("Hydrogen Disease").

11.11 Oxidation of Iron and Iron Alloys.

11.12 Life Test for Oxidation-Resistant Wires.

11.13 Oxidation-Resistant Alloys.

Reactive Element Effect (REE).

Chromium-Iron Alloys.

Chromium-Aluminum-Iron Alloys.

Nickel and Nickel Alloys.

Furnace Windings.

11.14 References.

11.15 General References.

11.16 Problems.

12. Stray-Current Corrosion.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Sources of Stray Current.

12.3 Quantitative Damage by Stray Currents.

12.4 Detection of Stray Currents.

12.5 Soil-Resistivity Measurement.

12.6 Means for Reducing Stray-Current Corrosion.

12.7 References.

12.8 General References.

12.9 Problems.

13. Cathodic Protection.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Brief History.

13.3 How Applied.

Sacrificial Anodes.

13.4 Combined Use with Coatings.

13.5 Magnitude of Current Required.

13.6 Anode Materials and Backfill.

Overprotection.

13.7 Criteria of Protection.

Potential Measurements.

Doubtful Criteria.

Position of Reference Electrode.

13.8 Economics of Cathodic Protection.

13.9 Anodic Protection.

13.10 References.

13.11 General References.

13.12 Problems.

14. Metallic Coatings.

14.1 Methods of Application.

14.2 Classification of Coatings.

14.3 Specific Metal Coatings.

Nickel Coatings.

Lead Coatings.

Zinc Coatings.

Cadmium Coatings.

Tin Coatings.

Chromium-Plated Steel for Containers.

Aluminum Coatings.

14.4 References.

14.5 General References.

15. Inorganic Coatings.

15.1 Vitreous Enamels.

15.2 Portland Cement Coatings.

15.3 Chemical Conversion Coatings.

15.4 References.

15.5 General References.

16. Organic Coatings.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Paints.

16.3 Requirements for Corrosion Protection.

16.4 Metal Surface Preparation.

Cleaning All Dirt, Oils, and Greases from the Surface.

Complete Removal of Rust and Mill Scale.

16.5 Applying Paint Coatings.

Wash Primer.

Painting of Aluminum and Zinc.

16.6 Filiform Corrosion.

Theory of Filiform Corrosion.

16.7 Plastic Linings.

16.8 References.

16.9 General References.

17. Inhibitors and Passivators.

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Passivators.

Mechanism of Passivation.

Applications of Passivators.

17.3 Pickling Inhibitors.

Applications of Pickling Inhibitors.

17.4 Slushing Compounds.

17.5 Vapor-Phase Inhibitors.

Inhibitor to Reduce Tarnishing of Copper.

17.6 References.

17.7 General References.

18. Treatment of Water and Steam Systems.

18.1 Deaeration and Deactivation.

18.2 Hot- and Cold-Water Treatment.

Cooling Waters.

18.3 Boiler-Water Treatment.

Boiler Corrosion.

Boiler-Water Treatment for Corrosion Control.

18.4 References.

18.5 General References.

19. Alloying for Corrosion Resistance; Stainless Steels.

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Stainless Steels.

Brief History.

Classes and Types.

Intergranular Corrosion.

Pitting and Crevice Corrosion.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Cracking.

Cracking of Sensitized Austenitic Alloys in Polythionic Acids.

Galvanic Coupling and General Corrosion Resistance.

19.3 References.

19.4 General References.

20. Copper and Copper Alloys.

20.1 Copper.

Corrosion in Natural Waters.

20.2 Copper Alloys.

Copper-Zinc Alloys (Brasses).

Dezincification.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking (Season Cracking).

Condenser Tube Alloys Including Copper-Nickel Alloys.

20.3 References.

20.4 General References.

20.5 Problems.

21. Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.

21.1 Aluminum.

Clad Alloys.

Corrosion in Water and Steam.

Effect of pH.

Corrosion Characteristics.

Galvanic Coupling.

21.2 Aluminum Alloys.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking.

21.3 References.

21.4 General References .

22. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys.

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Magnesium.

22.3 Magnesium Alloys.

Stress-Corrosion Cracking.

Coatings.

22.4 Summary.

22.5 References.

22.6 General References.

23. Nickel and Nickel Alloys.

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Nickel.

23.3 Nickel Alloys.

General Behavior.

Ni-Cu System: Alloy 400 - 70% Ni, 30% Cu.

Ni-Cr-Fe System: Alloy 600 - 76% Ni, 16% Cr, 7% Fe.

Ni-Mo System: Alloy B - 60% Ni, 30% Mo, 5% Fe.

Ni-Cr-Mo System: Alloy C - 54% Ni, 15% Cr, 16% Mo, 4% W, 5% Fe.

23.4 References.

23.5 General References.

24. Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys.

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Cobalt Alloys.

24.3 References.

24.4 General References.

25. Titanium.

25.1 Titanium.

25.2 Titanium Alloys.

25.3 Pitting and Crevice Corrosion.

25.4 Intergranular Corrosion and Stress-Corrosion Cracking.

25.5 References.

25.6 General References.

25.7 Problem.

26. Zirconium.

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Zirconium Alloys.

26.3 Behavior in Hot Water and Steam.

26.4 References.

26.5 General References.

27. Tantalum.

27.1 Introduction.

27.2 Corrosion Behavior.

27.3 References.

27.4 General References.

28. Lead.

28.1 Introduction.

28.2 Corrosion Behavior of Lead and Lead Alloys.

Lead-Acid Battery.

28.3 Summary.

28.4 References.

28.5 General References.

29. Appendix.

29.1 Activity and Activity Coefficients of Strong Electrolytes.

29.2 Derivation of Stern-Geary Equation for Calculating Corrosion Rates from Polarization Data Obtained at Low Current Densities.

29.3 Derivation of Equation Expressing the Saturation Index of a Natural Water.

29.4 Derivation of Potential Change along a Cathodically Protected Pipeline.

29.5 Derivation of the Equation for Potential Drop along the Soil Surface Created by Current Entering or Leaving a Buried Pipe.

29.6 Derivation of the Equation for Determining Resistivity of Soil by Four-Electrode Method.

29.7 Derivation of the Equation Expressing Weight Loss by Fretting Corrosion.

29.8 Conversion Factors.

Additional Conversion Factors.

Current Density Equivalent to a Corrosion Rate of 1 gmd.

29.9 Standard Potentials.

29.10 Notation and Abbreviations.

29.11 References.

Index.

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R. Winston Revie, PhD, has been Research Scientist at the CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, for three decades. He is a past chair of the ASM Canada Council and of The Electrochemical Society (Canadian Section), and a past president of the Metallurgical Society of CIM. He is on the Board of Directors of NACE International. Dr. Revie was editor of the Second Edition of Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook (Wiley).

THE LATE HERBERT H. UHLIG, PhD, was Professor of Metallurgy and served as director of MIT's Corrosion Laboratory for twenty-nine years. He published over 200 scientificpapers and edited The Corrosion Handbook. Among many distinguished honors, he served as president of The Electrochemical Society and was a Guggenheim Fellow.

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  • Places a greater emphasis on environmental issues (like contamination potential of corrosion inhibitors) 
  • Introduces new topics like the corrosion of nanomaterials and the element of risk management in corrosion engineering and control.
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  • Uses a quantitative approach (including basic equations) to discuss the fundamental thermodynamic and electrochemical principles that cause corrosion and treats practical corrosion problems and methods of protection and prevention
  • Adds coverage of new topics such as the corrosion of nanomaterials and the element of risk management in corrosion control and engineering
  • Covers the latest developments in the field, including advances in knowledge, new alloys for corrosion control, and industry developments in response to public demand
  • Includes problems and expanded questions in the text 
  • Includes a solutions manual (via a downloadable FTP site - please fill out this online form to request access)
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