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Design of Reinforced Concrete, 8th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-27927-4
720 pages
December 2008, ©2009
Design of Reinforced Concrete, 8th Edition (0470279273) cover image
The eighth edition of the best-selling Design of Reinforced Concrete continues the successful tradition of earlier editions by introducing the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design in a clear and understandable manner. Numerous examples of the principles discussed are included. The eighth edition has been updated to include revisions made by the American Concrete Institute in Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (318-08) and Commentary (318R-08).

The text was prepared for an introductory three credit hour undergraduate course on reinforced concrete design. Nevertheless, sufficient material is included so that this textbook can be used for a second additional three credit hour undergraduate course. Further, this text is also useful for practicing engineers as it presents the latest requirements of the ACI design code.

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Preface

Chapter  1. Introduction 1

1.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 1

1.2 Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a

Structural Material 1

1.3 Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete

as a Structural Material 2

1.4 Historical Background 3

1.5 Comparison of Reinforced Concrete and Structural

Steel for Buildings and Bridges 5

1.6 Compatibility of Concrete and Steel 6

1.7 Design Codes 7

1.8 SI Units and Shaded Areas 7

1.9 Types of Portland Cement 8

1.10 Admixtures 9

1.11 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 10

1.12 Aggregates 17

1.13 High-Strength Concretes 18

1.14 Fiber-Reinforced Concretes 20

1.15 Concrete Durability 21

1.16 Reinforcing Steel 21

1.17 Grades of Reinforcing Steel 24

1.18 Bar Sizes and Material Strengths 25

1.19 Corrosive Environments 26

1.20 Identifying Marks on Reinforcing Bars 26

1.21 Introduction to Loads 28

1.22 Dead Loads 28

1.23 Live Loads 28

1.24 Environmental Loads 30

1.25 Selection of Design Loads 32

1.26 Calculation Accuracy 33

1.27 Impact of Computers on Reinforced

Concrete Design 34

Chapter  2. Flexural Analysis of Beams 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Cracking Moment 38

2.3 Elastic Stresses-Concrete Cracked 40

2.4 Ultimate or Nominal Flexural

Moments 46

2.5 Example Problem Using SI Units 49

2.6 Computer Spreadsheets 50

Chapter  3. Strength Analysis of Beams According to

ACI Code 63

3.1 Design Methods 63

3.2 Advantages of Strength Design 64

3.3 Structural Safety 64

3.4 Derivation of Beam Expressions 65

3.5 Strains in Flexural Members 68

3.6 Balanced Sections, Tension-Controlled

Sections, and Compression-Controlled or

Brittle Sections 69

3.7 Strength Reduction or f Factors 70

3.8 Minimum Percentage of Steel 72

3.9 Balanced Steel Percentage 73

3.10 Example Problems 74

3.11 Computer Example 77

Chapter  4. Design of Rectangular Beams and

One-Way Slabs 79

4.1 Load Factors 79

4.2 Design of Rectangular Beams 81

4.3 Beam Design Examples 86

4.4 Miscellaneous Beam Considerations 92

4.5 Determining Steel Area When Beam

Dimensions Are Predetermined 93

4.6 Bundled Bars 95

4.7 One-Way Slabs 96

4.8 Cantilever Beams and Continuous Beams 99

4.9 SI Example 100

4.10 Computer Example 101

Chapter  5. Analysis and Design of T Beams and Doubly

Reinforced Beams 109

5.1 T Beams 111

5.2 Analysis of T Beams 111

5.3 Another Method for Analyzing T Beams 115

5.4 Design of T Beams 116

5.5 Design of T Beams for Negative Moments 122

5.6 L-Shaped Beams 124

5.7 Compression Steel 124

5.8 Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams 129

5.9 SI Examples 132

5.10 Computer Examples 134

Chapter  6. Serviceability 150

6.1 Introduction 150

6.2 Importance of Deflections 150

6.3 Control of Deflections 151

6.4 Calculation of Deflections 153

6.5 Effective Moments of Inertia 153

6.6 Long-Term Deflections 156

6.7 Simple-Beam Deflections 158

6.8 Continuous-Beam Deflections 160

6.9 Types of Cracks 166

6.10 Control of Flexural Cracks 167

6.11 ACI Code Provisions Concerning Cracks 171

6.12 Miscellaneous Cracks 172

6.13 SI Example 172

6.14 Computer Examples 173

Chapter  7. Bond, Development Lengths, and

Splices 180

7.1 Cutting Off or Bending Bars 180

7.2 Bond Stresses 183

7.3 Development Lengths for Tension

Reinforcing 186

7.4 Development Lengths for Bundled Bars 194

7.5 Hooks 195

7.6 Development Lengths for Welded Wire Fabric

in Tension 199

7.7 Development Lengths for Compression

Bars 200

7.8 Critical Sections for Development Length 202

7.9 Effect of Combined Shear and Moment

on Development Lengths 202

7.10 Effect of Shape of Moment Diagram

on Development Lengths 203

7.11 Cutting Off or Bending Bars

(Continued) 204

7.12 Bar Splices in Flexural Members 207

7.13 Tension Splices 208

7.14 Compression Splices 209

7.15 Headed and Mechanically

Anchored Bars 210

7.16 SI Example 211

7.17 Computer Example 212

Chapter  8. Shear and Diagonal Tension 219

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 219

8.3 Lightweight Concrete 220

8.4 Shear Strength of Concrete 221

8.5 Shear Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

Beams 222

8.6 Web Reinforcement 223

8.7 Behavior of Beams with Web

Reinforcement 225

8.8 Design for Shear 226

8.9 ACI Code Requirements 228

8.10 Example Shear Design Problems 233

8.11 Economical Spacing of Stirrups 243

8.12 Shear Friction and Corbels 243

8.13 Shear Strength of Members Subjected

to Axial Forces 246

8.14 Shear Design Provisions for Deep Beams 248

8.15 Introductory Comments on Torsion 249

8.16 SI Example 251

8.17 Computer Example 252

Chapter  9. Introduction to Columns 257

9.1 General 257

9.2 Types of Columns 258

9.3 Axial Load Capacity of Columns 260

9.4 Failure of Tied and Spiral Columns 261

9.5 Code Requirements for Cast-in-Place

Columns 264

9.6 Safety Provisions for Columns 266

9.7 Design Formulas 266

9.8 Comments on Economical Column Design 266

9.9 Design of Axially Loaded Columns 269

9.10 SI Example 271

9.11 Computer Example 272

Chapter  10. Design of Short Columns Subject to Axial

Load and Bending 275

10.1 Axial Load and Bending 275

10.2 The Plastic Centroid 276

10.3 Development of Interaction Diagrams 278

10.4 Use of Interaction Diagrams 283

10.5 Code Modifications of Column Interaction

Diagrams 285

10.6 Design and Analysis of Eccentrically Loaded

Columns Using Interaction Diagrams 287

10.7 Shear in Columns 295

10.8 Biaxial Bending 296

10.9 Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns 300

10.10 Discussion of Capacity Reduction Factor, f 303

10.11 Computer Example 305

Chapter  11. Slender Columns 311

11.1 Introduction 311

11.2 Nonsway and Sway Frames 311

11.3 Slenderness Effects 312

11.4 Determining k Factors with Alignment

Charts 315

11.5 Determining k Factors with Equations 317

11.6 First-Order Analyses Using Special Member

Properties 318

11.7 Slender Columns in Nonsway or Sway

Frames 319

11.8 ACI Code Treatment of Slenderness Effects 322

11.9 Magnification of Column Moments in Nonsway

Frames 322

11.10 Magnification of Column Moments in Sway

Frames 327

11.11 Analysis of Sway Frames 330

11.12 Computer Examples 336

Chapter  12. Footings 341

12.1 Introduction 341

12.2 Types of Footings 341

12.3 Actual Soil Pressures 342

12.4 Allowable Soil Pressures 345

12.5 Design of Wall Footings 346

12.6 Design of Square Isolated Footings 351

12.7 Footings Supporting Round or Regular

Polygon-Shaped Footings 357

12.8 Load Transfer from Columns to Footings 358

12.9 Rectangular Isolated Footings 362

12.10 Combined Footings 364

12.11 Footing Design for Equal Settlements 370

12.12 Footings Subjected to Lateral Moments 372

12.13 Transfer of Horizontal Forces 375

12.14 Plain Concrete Footings 376

12.15 SI Example 378

12.16 Computer Examples 379

Chapter  13. Retaining Walls 385

13.1 Introduction 385

13.2 Types of Retaining Walls 385

13.3 Drainage 387

13.4 Failures of Retaining Walls 390

13.5 Lateral Pressures on Retaining Walls 390

13.6 Footing Soil Pressures 395

13.7 Design of Semigravity Retaining Walls 396

13.8 Effect of Surcharge 399

13.9 Estimating the Sizes of Cantilever

Retaining Walls 400

13.10 Design Procedure for Cantilever

Retaining Walls 405

13.11 Cracks and Wall Joints 416

Chapter  14. Continuous Reinforced Concrete

Structures 422

14.1 Introduction 422

14.2 General Discussion of Analysis Methods 422

14.3 Qualitative Influence Lines 423

14.4 Limit Design 426

14.5 Limit Design under the ACI Code 433

14.6 Preliminary Design of Members 436

14.7 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames

for Vertical Loads 436

14.8 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames

for Lateral Loads 444

14.9 Computer Analysis of Building Frames 450

14.10 Lateral Bracing for Buildings 450

14.11 Development Length Requirements for

Continuous Members 451

Chapter  15. Torsion 462

15.1 Introduction 462

15.2 Torsional Reinforcing 463

15.3 The Torsional Moments That Have

to Be Considered in Design 466

15.4 Torsional Stresses 467

15.5 When Torsional Reinforcing is Required

by the ACI 468

15.6 Torsional Moment Strength 469

15.7 Design of Torsional Reinforcing 470

15.8 Additional ACI Requirements 471

15.9 Example Problems Using U.S.

Customary Units 472

15.10 SI Equations and Example Problem 475

15.11 Computer Example 479

Chapter  16. Two-Way Slabs, Direct Design Method 484

16.1 Introduction 484

16.2 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs 487

16.3 Design of Two-Way Slabs By the ACI Code 487

Contents ix

MacCormac_FM_1?10/14/2008 10

16.4 Column and Middle Strips 488

16.5 Shear Resistance of Slabs 489

16.6 Depth Limitations and Stiffness

Requirements 492

16.7 Limitations of Direct Design Method 497

16.8 Distribution of Moments in Slabs 498

16.9 Design of An Interior Flat Plate 503

16.10 Placing of Live Loads 508

16.11 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs with Beams 509

16.12 Transfer of Moments and Shears Between

Slabs and Columns 515

16.13 Openings in Slab Systems 520

16.14 Computer Examples 521

Problems 522

Chapter  17. Two-Way Slabs, Equivalent Frame

Method 524

17.1 Moment Distribution for Nonprismatic

Members 524

17.2 Introduction to the Equivalent Frame

Method 525

17.3 Properties of Slab Beams 527

17.4 Properties of Columns 530

17.5 Example Problem 531

17.6 Computer Analysis 535

Chapter  18. Walls 538

18.1 Introduction 538

18.2 Non-Load-Bearing Walls 538

18.3 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls-Empirical Design

Method 540

18.4 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls-Rational

Design 543

18.5 Shear Walls 545

18.6 ACI Provisions for Shear Walls 549

18.7 Economy in Wall Construction 554

18.8 Computer Examples 555

Chapter  19. Prestressed Concrete 558

19.1 Introduction 558

19.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Prestressed

Concrete 560

19.3 Pretensioning and Posttensioning 560

19.4 Materials Used for Prestressed Concrete 561

19.5 Stress Calculations 563

19.6 Shapes of Prestressed Sections 567

19.7 Prestess Losses 570

19.8 Ultimate Strength of Prestressed Sections 573

19.9 Deflections 577

19.10 Shear in Prestressed Sections 581

19.11 Design of Shear Reinforcement 582

19.12 Additional Topics 586

19.13 Computer Examples 588

Chapter  20. Formwork 594

20.1 Introduction 594

20.2 Responsibility for Formwork Design 594

20.3 Materials Used for Formwork 595

20.4 Furnishing of Formwork 596

20.5 Economy in Formwork 597

20.6 Form Maintenance 598

20.7 Definitions 599

20.8 Forces Applied to Concrete Forms 601

20.9 Analysis of Formwork for Floor and

Roof Slabs 604

20.10 Design of Formwork for Floor and

Roof Slabs 613

20.11 Design of Shoring 616

20.12 Bearing Stresses 622

20.13 Design of Formwork for Walls 625

Chapter  21. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete

Structure 629

21.1 Introduction 629

21.2 Maximum Considered Earthquake 630

21.3 Soil Site Class 630

21.4 Occupancy and Importance Factors 632

21.5 Seismic Design Categories 632

21.6 Seismic Design Loads 632

21.7 Detailing Requirements for Different Classes

of Reinforce Concrete Moment Frames 638

A. Tables and Graphs: U.S. Customary

Units 646

B. Tables in SI Units 682

C. The Strut-and-Tie Method of Design 688

 

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Jack C. McCormac is a retired Clemson civil engineering professor named by the Engineering News Record as one of the top 125 engineers or architects in the world in the last 125 years for his contributions to education. McCormac has authored or co-authored seven engineering textbooks, with more than half a million copies now in print. His current books have been adopted at more than 500 universities throughout the world. McCormac holds a BS in civil engineering from the Citadel, an MS in civil engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Doctor of Letters from Clemson University. Named an Alumni Distinguished Professor, he taught at Clemson for approximately thirty-four years before retiring in 1989. He is included in the International Who's Who in Engineering.

Russell H. Brown chaired the Civil Engineering Department at Clemson University for 17 years and recently retired. He received his BS degree from the University of Houston and his Ph.D. from Rice University.  He is former chairman of ASTM Committee C15, former chair of the Flexure and Axial Loads Subcommittee of the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, and Founding Member and Honorary Member of the Masonry Society. He received the John Scalzi Award for his research in structural masonry and twice received ASTM’s Alan Yorkdale Award for his research publications.

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Updated Code
  • With the eighth edition of this text the contents have been updated to conform to the 2008 building code of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-08).
  • This edition of the Code includes numerous changes in notations and section numbers. In addition, a change in the treatment of the design of lightweight aggregate concrete throughout the Code was introduced.
  • The strength reduction factor for spiral columns was increased and headed deformed bars were introduced as an alternative to hooks for providing development length.
  •  The new Code provided clarifications for development length of galvanized, stainless steel and bundled bars.
  • Use of small concrete cylinders was introduced, allowing 4 x 8 in. cylinders instead of 6 x 12 in.
  •  Earthquake-resistant design requirements are now related to the seismic design category (SDC) leave Seismic Design
  • Category with initial caps to be consistent with other documents that prescribe design loads.

Updated Material

  • Most of the chapters have been modified reflecting the viewpoints of the new coauthor, with the concurrence of the original author.
  • The new spreadsheets included with the text were created to provide the student and the instructor with tools to analyze and design reinforced concrete elements quickly to compare alternative solutions.

Seismic Design

  • A new chapter on seismic design was added. This chapter is intended only as an introduction to the topic. An entire textbook could be written on this subject alone. It does, however, familiarize the student with issues related to design of reinforced concrete structures to resist earthquakes.

Shear Wall Design

  • The section on shear wall design in Chapter has been expanded. The new material gives details and examples on how to design shear walls for combined axial load and bending moment.
  • Interaction diagrams are developed for shear walls similar to those for columns in Chapter 10.

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  • Excel Spreadsheets: Excel spreadsheets for many examples in the text provide the student and the instructor with tools to analyze and design reinforced concrete elements quickly to compare alternative solutions.

  • Seismic Design: A new introductory chapter on seismic designfamiliarizes students with issues related to design of reinforced concrete structures to resist earthquakes.

  • Shear Wall Design: Expanded material on shear wall design in Chapter 18 gives details and examples on how to design shear walls for combined axial load and bending moment. Interaction diagrams are developed for shear walls similar to those for columns in Chapter 10.
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    Instructors Resources
    Wiley Instructor Companion Site
    Solutions Manual
    Solutions Manual.

    A password-protected Solutions Manual is available for download, which contains complete solutions for all homework problems in the text.

    • Figures in PPT format.
    • Also available are the figures from the text in PowerPoint format, for easy creation of lecture slides.

    Visit the Instructor Companion Site portion of the books website at www.wiley.com/college/mccormac to register for a password.

    These resources are available for instructors who have adopted the book for their course.

    Excel spreadsheets
  • Excel spreadsheets are provided for most chapters of the text. Use of the spreadsheets is self-explanatory.Many of the cells contain comments to assist the new user. The spreadsheets can be modified by the student or instructor to suit their more specific needs.
  • In most cases, calculations contained within the spreadsheets mirror those shown in the example problems in the text.The many uses of these spreadsheets are illustrated throughout the text.
  • At the end of most chapters are example problems demonstrating the use of the spreadsheet for that particular chapter.

    Visit the Student Companion Site portion of the book’s Website at www.wiley.com/college/mccormac to download this software.

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    Students Resources
    Wiley Student Companion Site
    Excel spreadsheets
  • Excel spreadsheets are provided for most chapters of the text. Use of the spreadsheets is self-explanatory.Many of the cells contain comments to assist the new user. The spreadsheets can be modified by the student or instructor to suit their more specific needs.
  • In most cases, calculations contained within the spreadsheets mirror those shown in the example problems in the text.The many uses of these spreadsheets are illustrated throughout the text.
  • At the end of most chapters are example problems demonstrating the use of the spreadsheet for that particular chapter.

    Visit the Student Companion Site portion of the book’s Website at www.wiley.com/college/mccormac to download this software.

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