Ebook
Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF FiltersISBN: 9780470294161
443 pages
August 2008, WileyIEEE Press

Description
Microwave and RF filters play an important role in communication systems and, owing to the proliferation of radar, satellite, and mobile wireless systems, there is a need for design methods that can satisfy the everincreasing demand for accuracy, reliability, and shorter development times.
Beginning with a brief review of scattering and chain matrices, filter approximations and synthesis, waveguides and transmission lines, and fundamental electromagnetic equations, the book then covers design techniques for microwave and RF filters operating across a frequency range from 1 GHz to 35 GHz.
Each design chapter:

Is dedicated to only one filter and is organized by the type of filter response

Provides several design examples, including the analysis and modeling of the structures discussed and the methodologies employed

Offers practical information on the actual performance of the filters and common difficulties encountered during construction

Concludes with the construction technique, pictures of the inside and outside of the filter, and the measured performances
Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF Filters is an essential resource for wireless and telecommunication engineers, as well as for researchers interested in current microwave and RF filter design practices. It is also appropriate as a supplementary textbook for advanced undergraduate courses in filter design.
Table of Contents
Foreword xiii
Preface xv
PART I MICROWAVE FILTER FUNDAMENTALS 1
1 Scattering Parameters and ABCD Matrices 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Scattering Matrix of a TwoPort System 4
1.2.1 Definitions 4
1.2.2 Computing the S Parameters 6
1.2.3 SParameter Properties 10
1.3 ABCD Matrix of a TwoPort System 10
1.3.1 ABCD Matrix of Basic Elements 11
1.3.2 Cascade and Multiplication Property 12
1.3.3 Input Impedence of a Loaded TwoPort 14
1.3.4 Impedance and Admittance Inverters 14
1.3.5 ABCDParameter Properties 17
1.4 Conversion from Formulation S to ABCD and ABCD to S 18
1.5 Bisection Theorem for Symmetrical Networks 18
1.6 Conclusions 21
References 21
2 Approximations and Synthesis 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Ideal LowPass Filtering Characteristics 24
2.3 Functions Approximating the Ideal LowPass Magnitude Response 25
2.3.1 Butterworth Function 25
2.3.2 Chebyshev Function 26
2.3.3 Elliptic Function 27
2.3.4 Generalized Chebyshev (Pseudoelliptic) Function 29
2.4 Functions Approximating the Ideal LowPass Phase Response 30
2.4.1 Bessel Function 30
2.4.2 Rhodes Equidistant LinearPhase Function 31
2.5 LowPass Lumped Ladder Prototypes 32
2.5.1 General Synthesis Technique 32
2.5.2 Normalized LowPass Ladders 36
2.6 Impedance and Frequency Scaling 39
2.6.1 Impedance Scaling 39
2.6.2 Frequency Scaling 40
2.7 LC Filter Example 41
2.8 Impedance and Admittance Inverter Ladders 41
2.8.1 LowPass Prototypes 41
2.8.2 Scaling Flexibility 42
2.8.3 Bandpass Ladders 44
2.8.4 Filter Examples 45
2.9 Conclusions 46
References 46
3 Waveguides and Transmission Lines 49
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Rectangular Waveguides and Cavities 49
3.2.1 Rectangular Waveguides 49
3.2.2 Rectangular Cavities 52
3.3 Circular Waveguides and Cavities 53
3.3.1 Circular Waveguides 53
3.3.2 Cylindrical Cavities 55
3.4 Evanescent Modes 56
3.5 Planar Transmission Lines 57
3.6 Distributed Circuits 60
3.7 Conclusions 63
References 64
4 Categorization of Microwave Filters 67
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 MinimumPhase Microwave Filters 68
4.2.1 General Design Steps 68
4.2.2 MinimumPhase Filter Examples 70
4.3 NonMinimumPhase Symmetrical Response Microwave Filters 70
4.3.1 General Design Steps 71
4.3.2 NonMinimumPhase Symmetrical Response Filter Examples 73
4.3.3 Microwave LinearPhase Filters 73
4.4 NonMinimumPhase Asymmetrical Response Microwave Filters 74
4.4.1 General Design Steps 74
4.4.2 NonMinimumPhase Asymmetrical Response Filter Examples 77
4.4.3 Multimode Microwave Filters by Optimization 79
4.5 Conclusions 79
References 80
PART II MINIMUMPHASE FILTERS 83
5 CapacitiveGap Filters for Millimeter Waves 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.2 CapacitiveGap Filters 86
5.2.1 CapacitiveGap Filter Structure 86
5.2.2 Design Procedures 87
5.2.3 StepbyStep Design Example 91
5.2.4 Filter Realizations 93
5.3 Extension to Millimeter Waves 95
5.3.1 MillimeterWave Technology 95
5.3.2 FifthOrder Chebyshev CapacitiveGap Filter at 35 GHz 96
5.4 Electromagnetic Characterization of SSS 99
5.5 Conclusions 102
References 102
6 EvanescentMode Waveguide Filters with Dielectric Inserts 105
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 EvanescentMode Waveguide Filters 106
6.2.1 Scattering and ABCD Descriptions of the Structure 108
6.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of the Structure 110
6.2.3 Filter Design Procedure 115
6.2.4 Design Examples and Realizations 117
6.3 Folded EvanescentMode Waveguide Filters 121
6.3.1 Scattering and ABCD Descriptions of the Additional Elements 123
6.3.2 Filter Design Procedure 125
6.3.3 Design Examples and Realizations 125
6.4 Conclusions 127
References 128
7 Interdigital Filters 131
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Interdigital Filters 131
7.3 Design Method 135
7.3.1 Prototype Circuit 135
7.3.2 Equivalent Circuit 137
7.3.3 Input and Output 140
7.3.4 Case of Narrowband Filters 141
7.3.5 Frequency Transformation 141
7.3.6 Physical Parameters of the Interdigital Filter 142
7.4 Design Examples 145
7.4.1 Wideband Example 145
7.4.2 Narrowband Example 147
7.5 Realizations and Measured Performance 148
7.6 Conclusions 150
References 151
8 Combline Filters Implemented in SSS 153
8.1 Introduction 153
8.2 Combline Filters 153
8.3 Design Method 156
8.3.1 Prototype Circuit 156
8.3.2 Equivalent Circuit 157
8.3.3 Input and Output 159
8.3.4 Feasibility 162
8.3.5 Physical Parameters of the Combline Structure 162
8.4 Design Example 165
8.5 Realizations and Measured Performance 168
8.6 Conclusions 169
References 170
PART III NONMINIMUMPHASE SYMMETRICAL RESPONSE FILTERS 171
9 Generalized Interdigital Filters with Conditions on Amplitude and Phase 173
9.1 Introduction 173
9.2 Generalized Interdigital Filter 174
9.3 Simultaneous Amplitude and Phase Functions 175
9.3.1 MinimumPhase Functions with Linear Phase 175
9.3.2 NonMinimumPhase Functions with Simultaneous Conditions on the Amplitude and Phase 177
9.3.3 Synthesis of NonMinimumPhase Functions with Simultaneous Conditions on the Amplitude and
Phase 180
9.4 Design Method 182
9.4.1 EvenMode Equivalent Circuit 182
9.4.2 Frequency Transformation 186
9.4.3 Physical Parameters of the Interdigital Structure 187
9.5 Design Example 191
9.6 Realizations and Measured Performance 194
9.7 Conclusions 195
References 197
10 TemperatureStable Narrowband Monomode TE011 LinearPhase Filters 199
10.1 Introduction 199
10.2 TE011 Filters 200
10.3 LowPass Prototype 200
10.3.1 Amplitude 200
10.3.2 Delay 201
10.3.3 Synthesis of the LowPass Prototype 202
10.4 Design Method 204
10.4.1 Matching the Coupling 204
10.4.2 Selecting the Cavities 207
10.4.3 Defining the Coupling 208
10.5 Design Example 210
10.6 Realizations and Measured Performance 213
10.6.1 Amplitude and Phase Performance 213
10.6.2 Temperature Performance 214
10.7 Conclusions 215
References 217
PART IV NONMINIMUMPHASE ASYMMETRICAL RESPONSE FILTERS 219
11 Asymmetrical CapacitiveGap Coupled Line Filters 221
11.1 Introduction 221
11.2 CapacitiveGap Coupled Line Filters 222
11.3 Synthesis of LowPass Asymmetrical Generalized Chebyshev Filters 222
11.3.1 InLine Network 225
11.3.2 Analysis of the InLine Network 226
11.3.3 Synthesis of the InLine Network 229
11.3.4 Frequency Transformation 232
11.4 Design Method 233
11.5 Design Example 238
11.6 Realization of the CGCL Filter 243
11.7 Conclusions 244
References 245
12 Asymmetrical DualMode TE102/TE301 Thick Iris Rectangular InLine Waveguide Filters with Transmission Zeros 247
12.1 Introduction 247
12.2 TE102/TE301 Filters 248
12.3 Synthesis of LowPass Asymmetrical Generalized Chebyshev Filters 248
12.3.1 Fundamental Element 249
12.3.2 Analysis of the InLine Network 250
12.3.3 Synthesis by Simple Extraction Techniques 252
12.3.4 Frequency Transformation 254
12.4 Design Method 256
12.4.1 Equivalent Circuit of Monomode and Bimode Cavities 256
12.4.2 Optimization Approach 256
12.5 Design Example 262
12.6 Realizations and Measured Performance 266
12.6.1 ThirdOrder Filter with One Transmission Zero 266
12.6.2 FourthOrder Filter with Two Transmission Zeros 268
12.7 Conclusions 269
References 270
13 Asymmetrical Cylindrical DualMode Waveguide Filters with Transmission Zeros 273
13.1 Introduction 273
13.2 DualMode Cylindrical Waveguide Filters 274
13.3 Synthesis of LowPass Asymmetrical Generalized Chebyshev Filters 275
13.3.1 Synthesis From a CrossCoupled Prototype 275
13.3.2 Extracting the Elements from the Chain Matrix 277
13.3.3 Coupling Graph and Frequency Transformation 281
13.4 Design Method 284
13.4.1 Rotation Matrix 284
13.4.2 Cruciform Iris 286
13.4.3 Physical Parameters of the Irises 290
13.5 Realizations and Measured Performance 292
13.5.1 FourthOrder Filter with One Transmission Zero on the Left 292
13.5.2 FourthOrder Filter with Two Ransmission Zeros on the Right 293
13.5.3 SixthOrder Filter with One Transmission Zero on the Right 295
13.6 Conclusions 296
References 296
14 Asymmetrical Multimode Rectangular Building Block Filters Using Genetic Optimization 299
14.1 Introduction 299
14.2 Multimode Rectangular Waveguide Filters 300
14.3 OptimizationBased Design 302
14.3.1 Genetic Algorithm 302
14.3.2 Example 308
14.4 Realizations 313
14.4.1 FourthOrder Filter with Two Transmission Zeros 313
14.4.2 SeventhOrder Filter with Four Transmission Zeros 314
14.4.3 Extension to a TenthOrder Filter with Six Transmission Zeros 318
14.5 Conclusions 320
References 320
Appendix 1: Lossless Systems 323
Appendix 2: Redundant Elements 325
Appendix 3: Modal Analysis of Waveguide Step Discontinuities 328
Appendix 4: Trisections with Unity Inverters on the Inside or on the Outside 338
Appendix 5: Reference Fields and Scattering Matrices for Multimodal Rectangular Waveguide Filters 340
Index 353
Author Information
Jacques Beneat, PhD, is an Assistant Professor at Norwich University in Vermont. His research interests include microwave and filter design, radio propagation measurements, and modeling for emerging wireless networks.