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Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-37668-3
793 pages
September 2008, Wiley-Blackwell
Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd Edition (0470376686) cover image

Description

Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition contains concise, up-to-date information on vitamin nutrition for both animals and humans. The author defines these nutrients and describes their fascinating discovery, history and relationship to various diseases and deficiencies. Discussion of vitamins also includes their chemical structure, properties and antagonists; analytical procedures; metabolism; functions; requirements; sources; supplementation and toxicity. Vitamin-like substances, essential fatty acids and vitamin supplementation considerations are also examined.


This book will be useful worldwide as a textbook and as an authoritative reference for research and extension specialists, feed manufacturers, teachers, students and others. It provides a well-balanced approach to both animal and clinical human nutrition and compares chemical, metabolic and functional aspects of vitamins and their practical and applied considerations. A unique feature of the book is its description of the implications of vitamin deficiencies and excesses and the conditions that might occur in human and various animal species.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

1. Introduction and Historical Considerations

Definition of Vitamins 3

Classification of Vitamins 4

Vitamin Nomenclature 5

Vitamin Requirements 6

Vitamin Occurrence 7

History of the Vitamins 7

References 13

2. Vitamin A

Introduction 15

History 16

Chemical Structure and Properties 18

Analytical Procedures 21

Metabolism 22

Functions 28

Requirements 39

Natural Sources 43

Deficiency 48

Supplementation 69

B-Carotene Function Independent of Vitamin A 75

Toxicity 78

References 82

3. Vitamin D

Introduction 91

History 91

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 94

Analytical Procedures 95

Metabolism 97

Functions 103

Requirements 111

Natural Sources 115

Deficiency 117

Supplementation 134

Toxicity 140

References 147

4. Vitamin E

Introduction 155

History 155

Chemical Structure and Properties 157

Analytical Procedures 160

Metabolism 161

Functions 164

Requirements 170

Natural Sources 174

Deficiency 178

Supplementation 207

Toxicity 216

References 217

5. Vitamin K

Introduction 227

History 227

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 229

Analytical Procedures 231

Metabolism 232

Functions 235

Requirements 239

Natural Sources 242

Deficiency 244

Supplementation 254

Toxicity 258

References 259

6. Thiamin

Introduction 265

History 265

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 267

Analytical Procedures 269

Metabolism 269

Functions 271

Requirements 274

Natural Sources 278

Deficiency 280

Supplementation 301

Toxicity 305

References 305

7. Riboflavin

Introduction 311

History 311

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 312

Analytical Procedures 314

Metabolism 315

Functions 317

Requirements 321

Natural Sources 324

Deficiency 326

Supplementation 340

Toxicity 342

References 342

8. Niacin

Introduction 347

History 347

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 350

Analytical Procedures 350

Metabolism 351

Functions 355

Requirements 357

Natural Sources 360

Deficiency 362

Supplementation 376

Toxicity 379

References 380

9. Vitamin B6

Introduction 385

History 385

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 386

Analytical Procedures 388

Metabolism 389

Functions 391

Requirements 394

Natural Sources 397

Deficiency 399

Supplementation 409

Toxicity 412

References 413

10. Pantothenic Acid

Introduction 419

History 419

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 420

Analytical Procedures 422

Metabolism 423

Functions 424

Requirements 426

Natural Sources 429

Deficiency 430

Supplementation 439

Toxicity 441

References 441

11. Biotin

Introduction 445

History 445

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 446

Analytical Procedures 448

Metabolism 448

Functions 450

Requirements 452

Natural Sources 454

Deficiency 455

Supplementation 471

Toxicity 474

References 475

12. Folacin

Introduction 479

History 480

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 481

Analytical Procedures 484

Metabolism 485

Functions 487

Requirements 490

Natural Sources 494

Deficiency 495

Supplementation 512

Toxicity 515

References 516

13. Vitamin B12

Introduction 523

History 523

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 526

Analytical Procedures 528

Metabolism 529

Functions 532

Requirements 535

Natural Sources 538

Deficiency 540

Supplementation 555

Toxicity 558

References 559

14. Choline

Introduction 565

History 565

Chemical Structure and Properties 566

Analytical Procedures 567

Metabolism 568

Functions 571

Requirements 574

Natural Sources 576

Deficiency 578

Supplementation 588

Toxicity 592

References 592

15. Vitamin C

Introduction 597

History 597

Chemical Structure Properties and Antagonists 600

Analytical Procedures 601

Metabolism 602

Functions 604

Requirements 609

Natural Sources 611

Deficiency 613

Supplementation 627

Toxicity 633

References 634

16. Carnitine

Introduction 641

History 641

Chemical Structure and Properties 641

Analytical Procedures 642

Metabolism 642

Functions 644

Requirements 645

Natural Sources 646

Deficiency 647

Supplementation 653

Toxicity 655

References 655

17. Vitamin-like Substances

Introduction 659

Myo-Inositol (Inositol) 660

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) 666

p-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) 667

Flavonoids (Polyphenols) 668

Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid) 669

Coenzyme Q (Ubiquinones) 669

Vitamin B13 (Orotic Acid) 670

Vitamin B15 (Pangamic Acid) 670

Vitamin B17 (Laetrile) 670

Vitamin H3 (Gerovital) 671

Vitamin U (Cabagin) 671

Glucose Tolerance Factor 671

Other Vitamin-like Factors 671

References 673

18. Essential Fatty Acids

Introduction 675

History 675

Chemical Structure and Properties 676

Analytical Procedures 678

Metabolism and Functions 679

Requirements 689

Natural Sources 693

Deficiency 695

Supplementation 704

Toxicity 708

References 708

19. Vitamin Supplementation

Introduction 713

Factors Resulting in Inadequate Dietary Intakes of Vitamins 714

Factors Affecting Vitamin Requirements and Utilization 720

Optimum Vitamin Allowances 723

Vitamin Supplementation Most Needed by Livestock 727

Vitamin Supplementation for Humans 732

Providing Vitamin Supplements 735

Formulating Vitamin Premixes 741

References 742

Appendix: Vitamin Requirements of Livestock and Humans; Feed Composition; Metric Conversions

A1a: Vitamin Requirements for Ruminants and Horses 748

A1b: Vitamin Requirements for Monogastric Animals 750

A1c: Vitamin Requirements for Humans 756

A2: Composition of Important Feeds 758

A3: Metric Weights and Measures with Customary Equivalents 762

Index 763

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