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Basic Process Measurements

ISBN: 978-0-470-38024-6
304 pages
June 2009
Basic Process Measurements (0470380241) cover image


A unique resource for process measurement

Basic Process Measurements provides a unique resource explaining the industrial measuring devices that gauge such key variables as temperature, pressure, density, level, and flow. With an emphasis on the most commonly installed technologies, this guide outlines both the process variable being measured as well as how the relevant measuring instruments function. The benefits of each technology are considered in turn, along with their potential problems. Looking at both new and existing technologies, the book maintains a practical focus on properly selecting and deploying the best technology for a given process application.

The coverage in Basic Process Measurements enables the practitioner to:

  • Resolve problems with currently installed devices
  • Upgrade currently installed devices to newer and better technologies
  • Add instruments for process variables not previously measurable
  • Evaluate device installations from a perspective of both normal process operating conditions and abnormal conditions
  • Determine the best technology for a given set of process conditions
Designed for a wide range of technical professionals, Basic Process Measurements provides a balanced treatment of the concepts, background information, and specific processes and technologies making up this critical aspect of process improvement and control.
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Table of Contents


1. Basic Concepts.

1.1. Continuous vs. Discrete Measurement.

1.2. Continuous vs. Sampled Measurement.

1.3. In-Line, On-Line, and Off-Line.

1.4. Signals and Resolution.

1.5. Zero, Span, and Range.

1.6. Turndown Ratio and Rangeability.

1.7. Accuracy.

1.8. Repeatability.

1.9. Measurement Uncertainty.

1.10. Measurement Decision Risk.

1.11. Calibration.

1.12. Measurement Device Components.

1.13. Current Loop.

1.14. Power Supply and Wiring.

1.15. Serial Communications.

1.16. Smart Transmitters.

1.17. Environmental Issues.

1.18. Explosive Atmospheres.

1.19. Measurement Device Dynamics.

1.20. Filtering and Smoothing.

2. Temperature.

2.1. Heat and Temperature.

2.2. Temperature Scales.

2.3. Thermowells.

2.4. Bimetallic Thermometers.

2.5. Thermocouples.

2.6. Resistance Temperature Detectors.

2.7. Thermistors.

2.8. Temperature Transmitters.

2.9. Pyrometers.

2.10. Others.

3. Pressure.

3.1. Force and Pressure.

3.2. Measures of Pressure.

3.3. Pressure-Sensing Elements.

3.4. Indicators and Switches.

3.5. Pressure Sensor.

3.6. Strain Gauge Pressure Sensors.

3.7. Capacitance Pressure Sensors.

3.8. Resonant Frequency.

3.9. Installation.

3.10. Differential Pressure.

4. Level and Density.

4.1. Level, Volume, and Weight.

4.2. Pressure Transmitter.

4.3. Differential Pressure Transmitter.

4.4. Capacitance and Radio Frequency.

4.5. Ultrasonic.

4.6. Noncontact Radar.

4.7. Guided Wave Radar.

4.8. Nuclear.

4.9. A Few Others.

4.10. Level Switches.

4.11. Interface.

4.12. Density.

5. Flow.

5.1. Mass Flow, Volumetric Flow, and Velocity.

5.2. Static Pressure and Fluid Velocity.

5.3. Flashing and Cavitation.

5.4. Fluid Dynamics.

5.5. Flow Meter Application Data.

5.6. Orifi ce Meter.

5.7. Head Meters.

5.8. Coriolis Meters.

5.9. Magnetic Flow Meter.

5.10. Vortex-Shedding Meter.

5.11. Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flow Meter.

5.12. Doppler Ultrasonic Flow Meter.

5.13. Thermal Flow Meters.

5.14. Turbine Meter.

5.15. Other Flow Meters.

5.16. Flow Switches.


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Author Information

Cecil L. Smith, PhD, has over thirty-five years' experience in process control, his expertise encompassing every control technology being applied in industrial production facilities. In continuous processes, he has worked with oil refining, pulp/paper, power generation, and ore processing. In batch processes, he has experience with both single-product processes (such as PVC reactors and pulp digesters) and the multiproduct (flexible batch) processes that are the norm in specialty chemicals. His primary focus is on designing a control strategy for a process and then commissioning the controls; that is, the process aspects as opposed to systems aspects. He also develops and teaches continuing education courses for practicing engineers on various aspects of process control and instrumentation.

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