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Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses

ISBN: 978-0-470-38469-5
379 pages
February 2008, Wiley-Blackwell
Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses (0470384697) cover image
Divided into logical easy-to-use sections, Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses is an up-to-date anthology of the latest knowledge on the genus Neotyphodium. This thorough text covers the molecular biology of Neotyphodium endophytes and their effects on grass hosts, invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, and the plant communities in which they interact. The expert editors also include information on the commercial uses of endophytes in livestock and turf industries.

Researchers and teachers in grass research, extension, agronomy, and animal toxicology, and university libraries with courses in these subjects should not be without this important text.

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Preface.

Section I: Current Trends in Neotyphodium.

1 Neotyphodium Research and Application.

1.1 Current Trends in the USA- Henry A. Fribourg and John C. Waller.

1.2 Current Trends in Europe- Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa and Sylvie Bony.

1.3 Current Trends in New Zealand- Syd Easton and Brian Tapper.

1.4 Current Trends in Australia- K. F. M. Reed, C. J. Scrivener, K. A. Rainsford, and L. V. Walker.

1.5 Current Trends in Japan- Koya Sugawara, Takuya Shiba, and Masayuki Yamashita.

1.6 Current Trends in South America- Jose De Battista.

Section II: Molecular Biology of Neotyphodium.

2 Biosynthesis of Ergot and Loline Alkaloids- Christopher L. Schardl and Daniel G. Panaccione.

Ergot Alkaloids.

Loline Alkaloids.

3 Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Lolitrem and Peramine Biosynthetic Pathways in Epichloë festucae- Barry Scott, Carolyn Young, Aiko Tanaka, Michael Christensen, Brian Tapper, and Gregory Bryan.

Endophyte Synthesis of Bioprotective Metabolites.

Epichloë festucae as a Model Experimental System for Genetic Analysis of Endophytes.

Genetics and Molecular Cloning of a Peramine Biosynthesis Gene Cluster.

Molecular Cloning and Genetic Analysis of a Gene Cluster for Paxilline Biosynthesis.

Molecular Cloning and Genetic Analysis of a Gene Cluster for Lolitrem Biosynthesis.

4 Gene Discovery and Microarray-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Grass- Endophyte Association -German C. Spangenberg, Silvina A. Felitti, Kate Shields, Marc Ramsperger, Pei Tian, Eng Kok Ong, Daniel Singh, Erica Logan, and David Edwards.

Biology of Grass–Endophyte Symbioses.

Fungal Genomics.

Gene Discovery in Epicholoë–Neotyphodium Endophytes.

Discovery of EST-Derived SSR and SNP Markers.

Fungal Transcriptomics.

Microarry-Based Transcriptome Analysis.

5 Molecular Genetic Marker-Based Analysis of the Grass–Endophyte Symbiosis- Eline van Zijll de Jong, Kevin F. Smith, German C. Spangenberg, and John W. Forster.

Development and Characterization of SSR Systems.

Analysis of Intraspecific Genetic Diversity.

Phylogenetic Analysis.

Co-Genotyping of Grass–Endophyte Symbioses.

Section III: Ecology and Agronomy.

6 A Hierarchical Framework for Understanding the Ecosystem Consequences of Endophyte–Grass Symbioses- Marina Omacini, Enrique J. Chaneton, and Claudio M. Ghersa.

A Hierarchical Approach to Endophyte Impacts on Ecosystem Functioning.

Endophyte Effects at the Host Plant Level.

Endophyte-Driven Dynamics at the Neighborhood Level.

Endophyte Impacts on Community-Level Dynamics.

Future Challenges.

7 Biotic Responses in Endophytic Grasses- Alison J. Popay and Stacy A. Bonos.

Biotic Responses in Wild Grasses.

Invertebrate Responses in Forage and Turf Grasses.

Plant Pathogen Responses in Turf and Forage Grasses.

Multitrophic Interactions.

Factors Affecting Biotic Responses.

8 Abiotic Stresses in Endophytic Grasses- D. P. Malinowski, D. P. Belesky, and G. C. Lewis.

Drought Stress.

Light Stress.

Mineral Stress.

Novel Endophytes and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Cool-Season Grasses.

9 Growth and Management of Endophytic Grasses in Pastoral Agriculture- David E. Hume and David J. Barker.

Endophyte Contamination in Pastures.

Sources of Contamination with Toxic Endophyte-Infected Perennial Ryegrass and Tall Fescue.

Factors to Consider in Selecting the Right Endophyte Option.

Section IV: Animal Toxicoses.

10 Managing Ryegrass–Endophyte Toxicoses- Lester R. Fletcher.

Confirming the Safety and Animal Productivity on AR1 Pastures.

Ryegrass Staggers in the Absence of Lolitrem B.

Managing Risk.

Minimizing the Impact of Endemic Endophyte in Grazing Systems.

11 Interaction between Thermal Stress and Fescue Toxicosis: Animal Models and New Perspectives- Donald E. Spiers, Tim J. Evans, and George E. Rottinghaus.

Relationship between Fescue Toxicosis and Environmental Conditions.

Thermoregulatory Terminology.

Animal Models and Control System Terminology.

Application of Animal Models to Fescue Toxicosis.

Short-Term Responses: Bovine and Rodent Models.

Long-Term Responses: Bovine and Rodent Models.

Use of Bovine and Rodent Models to Evaluate New Approaches to Reduce the Impact of Fescue Toxicosis on Thermoregulatory Ability.

12 Absorption of Ergot Alkaloids in the Ruminant- Nicholas S. Hill.

Structure of Ergot Alkaloids.

Drug Absorption in Monogastrics.

Partitioning Coefficients.

Ruminal Metabolism and Absorption of Ergot Alkaloids.

13 Pathophysiologic Response to Endophyte Toxins- Jack W. Oliver.

Clinical Signs/Syndromes.

Physiological Manifestations of Endophyte Toxicosis.

14 Integrating Genetics, Environment, and Management to Minimize Animal Toxicoses- John A. Stuedemann and Dwight H. Seman.

Impact of Endophyte-Infested Tall Fescue on Animal Response.

Strategies for Reducing or Alleviating the Effects of Endophyte-Infested Fescue.

The Role of Producer Expectations or Goals.

Section V: Technology Transfer and Quality Assurance.

15 Endophytes in Forage Cultivars- Joe Bouton and Syd Easton.

Endemic Situation in Tall Fescue.

Endemic Situation in Perennial Ryegrass.

Reinfection of Elite Cultivars with Novel Endophytes.

Technical Requirements during Development and Commercialization of Endophytes.

Future.

16 Endophytes in Turfgrass Cultivars- Leah A. Brilman.

Endophyte Benefits for Turf.

Challenges in Implementing Endophytic Benefits in Turf.

Future Research and Direction.

17 Endophytes, Quality Assurance, and the Seed Trade In Eastern Australia- W. M. Wheatley.

Perennial Ryegrass.

Tall Fescue.

Spread of Endophyte.

Endophyte Viability in Seed.

Government Policy and Endophytes.

Endemic Endophyte in Seed Lines.

Selected Endophytes.

Packaging and Storage of Seed with Endophytes.

Endophyte-Free Seed.

Producer Expectations.

Seed Industry.

18 Public Education on Tall Fescue Toxicosis- Craig Roberts and John Andrae.

Co-Workers and Cow-Workers: What Do Specialists Recommend, and What Will Producers Adopt?.

The Witch’s Brew.

Proposed Educational Approaches

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Craig Roberts is the lead Editor and is State Extension Forage Specialist at University of Missouri.

Chuck West, University of Arkansas.

Don Spiers, University of Missouri

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"The book will be useful to researchers, educators, and extension specialists as a "one-stop shopping" opportunity into endophyte biology." Thomas L. Bultman, Biology Department, Hope College, Holland, MI in Crop Science, January-February 2006.

"In sum, Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses is an excellent collection of recent literature that those working with pasture of turf grass will want to have on their shelf. In addition, plant and fungal ecologists who seek to learn more about the fascinating grass endophytes will find Neotyphodium in Cool-Season Grasses an excellent starting place." Thomas L. Bultman, Biology Department, Hope College, Holland, MI in Crop Science, January-February 2006.

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